British Museum blog

The archaeology begins at home

Neal Spencer, British Museum

Storeroom during clearance, with traditional beds (angareeb)

Work on converting parts of the expedition house has seen us create more working rooms in a western annex of the main house. As the artefact stores are also located here, it will create an area of the house for study, away from the eating and washing areas, but also the bedrooms.

Thankfully, mudbrick houses can be easily modified, as doors and windows can be inserted into walls, or blocked up.

Kawsir (left) in store, opening date containers

One of the rooms had been locked since we moved to this house, and used as a storage space for the owner’s possessions. There are many houses on the island that are unoccupied, with windows and doors blocked up – as the owner has travelled to Khartoum or abroad for work, or has passed away. In many such houses, a room is kept locked to store all manner of tools, clothing, furniture and other possessions.

When we opened Kawsir’s storeroom it provided a fascinating glimpse of local life for over a century (the house itself is perhaps 70 years old). Some objects were relatively recent – plastic jerry cans for diesel, printed school books, plastic flasks for tea, and a wide selection of aluminium kitchen ware, mattresses and blankets.

Various containers, a mudbrick mould, stove and bedpan

A photo album provided a fascinating glimpse at the people who owned these objects, their relatives and friends: colleagues on a construction site in January 1983, families in traditional houses much like ours, wedding photos, and studio portraits – something of a kaleidoscope of changing fashions.

Family photograph album

Metal crates, one from the Second World War embossed with “F&L I 1942”, were used to store books and clothing and, while a more traditional carved wooden chest also held a TV and digital satellite receiver. Such chests are typically given to women upon marriage.

Carved wood chest, with TV and satellite reciever found inside.

We also found more traditional objects, of types in use for centuries. Two wooden beds (anagareeb) with their distinctive carved legs are not dissimilar to ancient examples, fragments of which are found in the cemetery at Amara West.

A wide range of woven matting – for the floor (brish), but also used as prayer mats or to lay on beds prior to the arrival of mattresses – was found, alongside shallow basketry containers for wheat and other foodstuffs, and 12 food-covers (tabag).

Angareeb-bed, with mats.

Dating these objects is almost impossible as many are still used today alongside plastic and aluminium products. The use for individual objects has also changed across time – thus an aluminium barrel originally used to transport 70lbs of insecticide from Philips Suphar, a Dutch company, to Port Sudan, is now typically kept to store flour.

Two traditional wooden serving dishes (gadha) were also found, with incised decor around the rim. These could date to the late nineteenth century, or even earlier.

Unsurprisingly, on an island where date production is the major source of income, several containers for dates were found in the store: a traditional clay guseeba, pottery zirs, and plastic barrels – a familiar mix of modern and traditional. The dates are often stored in houses for up to a year after harvest – a copper and bone date measure was also found.

Traditional pottery and date measure (right)

Our inspector Shadia Abdu Rabo has been helping us interpret some of the objects. The potential for anthropological research on material like this is vast, especially in a village environment that is changing so quickly.

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  1. […] archaeobotanist, Philippa Ryan, will be working at the house on botanical remains we collected, but also sampling for phytoliths on site itself – these tiny […]

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  2. […] work is all done in the dig house, and the objects are then transferred to the […]

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Most Greek sculpture that survives from antiquity is carved from white marble, of which the Mediterranean has many natural sources. A relationship has often been assumed between the pure white of freshly cut marble and the idealism of Greek art. In fact, the opposite is true. Colour was intrinsic to ancient ideas of beauty. For centuries this has been a subject of fascination and controversy. The great Italian Renaissance sculptor Michelangelo revived the Greek idea of the human body but denied the use of colour. This was partly due to negative associations with the painted saints of the medieval period. During the European Enlightenment of the 1750s onwards, and increasingly into our own time, the preferred aesthetic was a truth to materials. Painting and gilding were seen as unnecessary and undesirable.

Sculpture in antiquity was often adorned not only with colour but also with different materials. The Greek marble statue of an archer reconstructed here was drilled and fitted with metal attachments. The figure originally held a bronze bow and arrow and a quiver was fixed to his left hip by a metal dowel. Individual locks of hair were made of lead. The colourful design of the man’s knitted all-in-one garment, often worn by peoples from the east, is clearly seen weathered into the marble surface under controlled lighting.

You can see this wonderful object in our exhibition #DefiningBeauty, until 5 July 2015.
#exhibition #BritishMuseum #ancientGreece #sculpture #art

Plaster cast of archer with reconstructed paint, based on a Greek original of about 490–480 BC, from the Temple of Aphaia at Aigina. Staatliche Antikensammlung und Glyptothek, Munich. Uta Uta Tjangala's masterpiece Yumari is a highlight of‪ #IndigenousAustralia, opening a week today
#exhibition #art #history #BritishMuseum #Australia #museum Hans Sloane's collection also ended up as the basis of the @natural_history_museum and the @britishlibrary!
To make more room for the increasing collections held by the British Museum, the natural history collections were moved to a new building in South Kensington in the 1880s. This eventually became the Natural History Museum. These images show some of the natural history specimens on display, including giraffes and a mastodon!
In 1997, the library departments left the Museum to be re-housed at the new British Library in St Pancras.
#history #BritishMuseum #collection #animals #books Hans Sloane's encyclopaedic collection became the cornerstone of the British Museum.
This drawer was once part of the materia medica - a sort of pharmaceutical cabinet - in the collection of Sloane. The cabinet had several drawers, each carefully constructed to keep out destructive insects. Some drawers had small compartments like this example, others contained glazed boxes with seeds, fruit, bark, roots, gums and resins inside. Each had a label written by Sloane with a catalogue number. The botanical or medicinal name of the subtance, where it came from and who collected it were then recorded in his catalogues of his collection.
As Sloane's interest in natural history grew along with his income, he was able to widen the scope of his collection from being primarily medical to being more encyclopaedic, representing the widest possible variety of substances and artefacts for his own reference and for others to consult.
© 2003 The Natural History Museum @natural_history_museum 
#history #BritishMuseum #collection #museum Our founder, Sir Hans Sloane, was born ‪#onthisday in 1660.
This engraving after a portrait  by T Murray shows him at the age of 68. The inscription at the bottom can be translated as: 'Sir Hans Sloane, baronet / Pres[ident]. of the College of Physicians of London and the Royal Society. etc.'
Sloane was born in Ireland in 1660, and trained as a doctor of medicine. At the age of 27 he went to the West Indies as personal doctor to the Governor of Jamaica and while living there he began to form his great collection of natural history specimens. For the rest of his long life he collected plants, fossils and minerals, as well as objects from ancient Rome, Egypt and Assyria. He also amassed an impressive collection of books, manuscripts, prints and drawings.
#history #BritishMuseum Leonardo da Vinci was born #onthisday in 1452. 
This study of a warrior is drawn in metalpoint, specifically silverpoint, a popular medium with Early Renaissance artists. It is most suitable for detailed and careful drawings. Metalpoint was a good method of training young apprentice artists as it required control and discipline. 
Here, the silverpoint line, which has turned grey in the atmosphere, is thin and delicate. The detail is extraordinary: the armour, the curls in his hair and the splendid elaborate helmet are even exceeded by the modelling of the man's face and the lion on his breastplate. Endless patience must have been required of the young Leonardo to produce the very fine shadows of the man's face, each a separate line.
#art #daVinci #Leonardo #history #drawing #silverpoint
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