British Museum blog

Translating the hieroglyphs on an ancient Egyptian shroud

John Taylor, British Museum

British Museum curator John Taylor examines the text for the first time with Norwich Castle Museum research associate Faye Kalloniatis, British Museum conservator Monique Pullan and textile conservation intern Melina Plottu. © Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery / Trustees of the British Museum

British Museum curator John Taylor examines the text for the first time with Norwich Castle Museum research associate Faye Kalloniatis, British Museum conservator Monique Pullan and textile conservation intern Melina Plottu. © Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery / Trustees of the British Museum

    This is the latest in a series of posts about the unfolding of the Norwich shroud, a joint project between the British Museum and Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery

When I visited the textile conservation lab to see the shroud unfolded for the first time, I was delighted to find that my first suspicion about its contents had been right – it is indeed a mummy cloth inscribed with texts from the Book of the Dead in vertical columns of red and black hieroglyphs.

Shrouds of this type date mainly to the early phase of the Book of the Dead (17th and early 18th Dynasty, about 1570-1450 BC) before the spells began to be written on rolls of papyrus. They are quite rare.

The handwriting appears consistent in style throughout, suggesting that all the texts were written by the same person. The script is semi-cursive: several signs have been drawn very rapidly and simply, and are closer in form to hieratic than hieroglyphic. Again this is exactly what would be expected of an inscribed shroud from the beginning of the New Kingdom.

The first glimpse of such an object brings a lot of questions crowding into the mind at once. Is it complete? Who did it belong to? What do the texts actually say?

The cartouche contains the name of King Menkaure. © Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery / Trustees of the British Museum

The cartouche contains the name of King Menkaure. © Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery / Trustees of the British Museum

The eye is naturally drawn to the double column of text in red ink roughly in the middle of the cloth and I was immediately struck by the presence there of a cartouche – the oval enclosure which surrounds a royal name in Egyptian inscriptions. For a split second I wondered if this could be the burial shroud of a king, but a closer look at the surrounding words showed this was not so.

The red text turned out to be the rubric (endnote) of spell 64 of the Book of the Dead, which gives an account of the mythical discovery of the spell in the reign of Menkaure, builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza (about 2520 BC)– and his was the name in the cartouche.

So was the owner of the shroud mentioned somewhere else? I cast my eyes further, looking for a name among the words in black, and there it was: Ipu (a woman), daughter of Mutresti. Both names are typical of the very beginning of the 18th Dynasty, and they appeared several times in different parts of the inscriptions.

Everything points to this being a classic example of such a shroud, so the next step will be to identify the texts. This is a job which needs to be done in the study, but even a preliminary glance proved to be informative.

The text of the left hand column states the shroud owner’s name (Ipu, daughter of Mutresti). © Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery / Trustees of the British Museum

The text of the left hand column states the shroud owner’s name (Ipu, daughter of Mutresti). © Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery / Trustees of the British Museum

The selection of spells that were written on these shrouds often varies, but some popular ones occur on most of the surviving examples. I recognised at the right-hand end part of spell 149, a description of the mounds of the netherworld, mysterious sacred places which the Egyptians believed they would have to pass by on the journey to eternal life.

This spell usually concludes early manuscripts of the Book of the Dead, and its occurrence at the edge of the textile suggested that we probably have one end of the shroud more or less intact. However, the left-hand edge is torn and there was no way of telling how much might be missing.

Once back in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan I began to research parallel examples and to see whether anything else might be known about Ipu. Fortunately the great German scholar Irmtraut Munro has published a large two-volume work on early 18th Dynasty mummy shrouds in the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo. I consulted this and, astonishingly, found that it included the shroud of a lady Ipu, daughter of Mutresti, covered with spells from the Book of the Dead.

The photograph in the volume showed that the handwriting is the same as that on the Norwich shroud and that the Cairo piece too is incomplete, so almost certainly they were parts of the same cloth.

Where did they come from and how did they become separated?

There is clearly more to be discovered about this remarkable object.

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Filed under: Conservation, Norwich shroud, , , , , ,

2 Responses - Comments are closed.

  1. sherin says:

    Is there any book or website puplished the the transcription of the spells of the Book of the Dead and it’s transliteration and translation ?

    Like

  2. Monica says:

    This is fascinating, you should update this blog!!! Please :)

    Like

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We’re delighted to announce our first exhibition of the autumn ‘Drawing in silver and gold: Leonardo to Jasper Johns’, which opens 10 September.
This exhibition will feature around 100 of the best examples of #metalpoint spanning six centuries. Metalpoint is a challenging drawing technique where a metal stylus is used on a roughened preparation, ensuring that a trace of the metal is left on the surface. When mastered it can produce drawings of crystalline clarity and refinement.
This exhibition was organised by the National Gallery of Art, Washington @ngadc in association with the British Museum.
Book your tickets now to see these spectacular works! #art #drawing #Leonardo

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Bust of a warrior. Silverpoint, on prepared paper, c. 1475-1480. Can you guess the artist behind this work? 
All will be revealed at our special exhibition announcement tomorrow! #metalpoint Tower Bridge opened #onthisday in 1894. Here’s an early print of the iconic landmark.
#history #London #TowerBridge The mummy case of this temple doorkeeper called Padiamenet is covered with hieroglyphic inscriptions and religious images. The inscriptions on this brilliantly painted cartonnage tell us that he was the Chief Doorkeeper of the Domain of Ra, the Chief Attendant of Ra, and also Chief Barber of the Domain of Ra and of the temple of Amun. This largest scene shows Padiamenet, dressed in a long fringed robe, adoring the god Osiris, who is grasping the royal crook and flail. Behind him stands his sister, the goddess Isis.
Gain a unique insight into the lives of eight people over a remarkable 4,000 years in our #8mummies exhibition, closing 12 July #MummyMonday
#history #mummies #BritishMuseum Peter Paul Rubens was born #onthisday in 1577.
This is a magnificent drawing in both scale and style. It is drawn in black and yellow chalk, though Rubens also used a grey wash and some white heightening in order to bring the animal to life on paper.
The lioness is drawn from behind. Her front paw is raised and her mouth open, the fangs clearly visible. White heightening brings out the lighted area around the tail and the joints of the back legs. Both short and longer chalk strokes are used to suggest the different textures of the fur and mane.
Rubens used this drawing for a lioness in his painting of 'Daniel in the Lions' Den' (1613/15; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC). The vividness of the drawing is even more remarkable given that Rubens probably based his drawing on a bronze statue of a lion and not a living animal. The strong contour line in black chalk around the animal suggests that he was studying a model. However, Rubens had the gift and genius to invest an unmoving object with both life and movement, even if the highlights give the impression of a metallic sheen.
#art #artist #Rubens #history This striking photo taken by @charlesimperialpendragon shows the colossal limestone bust of Amenhotep III in the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery (Room 4). #regram #repost

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