British Museum blog

From ancient coins, to Medieval gold: public archaeological finds revealed

Michael Lewis, Portable Antiquities Scheme, British Museum
Today, we launched the latest Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report at the British Museum, with the help of Ed Vaizey, Minister for culture, communications and creative industries.

The report outlines the thousands of archaeological objects discovered and reported by members of the public through the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) in 2008 and to mark the occasion we had some of the more important or interesting finds on show.

Late Iron Age coin hoard of 840 gold staters, about AD 15-20.

Late Iron Age coin hoard of 840 gold staters, about AD 15-20. © Portable Antiquities Scheme

Among them was a Late Iron Age coin hoard of 840 gold staters from the Wickham Market area in Suffolk, dating to about AD 15-20. The coins were discovered in March 2008; and more were later found during an excavation of the findspot by Suffolk County Council’s Archaeology Service. It’s the largest hoard of Iron Age gold coins discovered since a similar hoard – the Whaddon Chase Hoard (Buckinghamshire) – was unearthed in 1849.

Unfortunately the Whaddon Chase Hoard was partially dispersed following its discovery, making it difficult to estimate the number of coins found. It is hoped that Colchester and Ipswich Museums will be able to raise the funds to acquire it, which is currently on display in Room 41 at the British Museum.

Roman knife handle from Syston, Lincolnshire.

Roman knife handle from Syston, Lincolnshire. © Portable Antiquities Scheme

Another intriguing find is a Roman knife handle from Syston, Lincolnshire. Its precise date in unknown. It was found by a man named David Barker and depicts an erotic scene involving two males and a female, and a decapitated head.
Only a handful of erotic knife handles are known from Britain, and this is of a new type. The significance of the decapitated head is unclear. The find has been acquired by The Collection, Lincoln.

On 7 August 2008 Darren Hoyle found a Medieval gold locket in Rolleston, Nottinghamshire, which dates to about AD 1450-1500. It has an inscription, which reads cauns [sauns] repentir (without regret), which may have been an amatory phrase. It is closely comparable to a similar object found as part of the Fishpool Hoard (also from Nottinghamshire), in 1966, which is on display in the British Museum.

The Fishpool Hoard is thought to have been deposited in May 1464, during the Wars of the Roses, and it is possible the Rolleston and Fishpool lockets were made by the same workshop. The Rolleston locket has been acquired by the British Museum.

Medieval gold locket found in Rolleston, Nottinghamshire, about  AD 1450-1500

Medieval gold locket found in Rolleston, Nottinghamshire, about AD 1450-1500. © Portable Antiquities Scheme

The PAS was established in 1997 to record archaeological objects found by the public, to coincide with the passing of the Treasure Act 1996, under which finders have a legal obligation to report precious Treasure finds. The British Museum now manages the PAS and administers the Treasure Act.

Since 1997 there has been a significant increase in the reporting of both Treasure and non-Treasure finds. In 2010, 90,146 archaeological objects were recorded through the PAS – a 36% increase on 2009 – and 859 Treasure cases, up 10%. These finds, are important clues for understanding the past, telling us where and how people lived, and what they did. They also offer a tangible link with everyday people, often ignored in written sources.

The finds recorded are of many different types, including flints worked into tools, coins and tokens, pottery, copper-alloy dress accessories (brooches, pins, buckles etc), as well as high-status gold and silver objects. Some are complete, but many are incomplete, broken and/or worn. Even so all have archaeological value.

Group of Early Medieval gold objects from West Yorkshire, about AD 600-1100.

Group of Early Medieval gold objects from West Yorkshire, about AD 600-1100. © Portable Antiquities Scheme

Most importantly, all finds recorded with the PAS have good findspot information. Archaeologists need to know exactly where a find was found to fully unleash its archaeological potential.

Without a findspot, the most spectacular discovery has almost no archaeological value. Conversely, if the findspot is known then it is possible to compare an object with others of that type, to see if there are distribution patterns, or learn more about the area where the find was discovered. Indeed, some common finds can be rare for a particular place, and therefore the findspot is of crucial importance.

A majority of the finds recorded by the PAS or reported Treasure have been found by members of the public; in fact the PAS only records object found by the public, though archaeologists too have a legal obligation to report Treasure.

Most archaeological finds nowadays are found by metal-detectorists, but now and again someone out walking or digging in their garden will make a chance discovery, and should take it to their local museum so it can be recorded with the PAS.

Now the funding of the PAS has been secured for the next four years there is great potential for the Scheme to further advance our knowledge of the past. Over the past few years there have been some amazing finds – such as the Staffordshire Hoard and Frome Hoard – and it is almost certain others will be found before long. But only if the finds are properly recovered and recorded will they have the potential to change the archaeological map of the country…

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  1. Pauline says:

    I find that the gold objects from West yorrkshire very well done, and so fine for this period. Would the gold have come from Wales perhaps?


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Our #Celts exhibition opens today! It brings together the incredible Iron Age, Roman and early medieval collections of the British Museum and @nationalmuseumsscotland.
Roman control of southern Britain broke down around AD 410. New leaders established Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England, and Roman towns and cities were largely abandoned. Neighbouring communities in Scotland, Ireland and Wales continued to develop their own unique identities. Monasteries in these areas stood out as European centres of art, learning and literacy, perpetuating and reinventing local traditions. Communities here spoke languages that we now call Celtic, and practiced a distinctive form of Christianity.
Striking stone crosses, such as this one found in Monifieth, Scotland, combined ancient Celtic curves with Anglo-Saxon knotwork and interlace designs to express these distinctive Celtic identities in Scotland, Ireland and Wales. This sculpture may have been a personal memorial or grave-slab.
Slab of grey sandstone with a cross on one side. From Monifieth, Angus, Scotland, c. AD 800–900. National Museums Scotland.
Find out more about #Celtic art and history and book tickets at Our #Celts exhibition opens today! It brings together stunning objects from the British and Irish Isles as well spectacular loans from across Europe.
This magnificent cauldron is one of the most important and intriguing finds from ancient Europe. It reveals connections between communities thousands of miles apart. Although it depicts objects used in central and western Europe,
it was found in a bog near Gundestrup in Denmark, beyond the northern edge of the Celtic regions. The style of the designs suggests that it was made further east, in Bulgaria or Romania. The strange animals and cross-legged pose of
the antlered figure hint at even wider influences, from as far afield as Asia. The scenes on the panels give a glimpse into a world of ancient myths, and the stories of gods and heroes whose names are now lost.
The Gundestrup cauldron was probably reserved for important rituals. It is likely that most people would have viewed it from a distance, seeing only the forbidding faces of gods and goddesses on the outer panels. The fantastical scenes on the inside would have been revealed to those allowed to experience the cauldron close up.
Gundestrup cauldron. Iron Age, c. 100 BC–AD 1. Found in Gundestrup, northern Jutland, Denmark. @nationalmuseet, #Denmark.
Find out more about #Celtic art and history and book tickets at Our major new #Celts exhibition is now open! Come on a 2,500-year journey tracing what it means to be Celtic...
The peoples first referred to as Celts lived across much of Europe north of the Alps, in villages or fortified hilltop settlements. Although not a single distinct group, they were interconnected, sharing cultural ideas across the continent. The objects they made for feasting, religious ceremonies, adornment and warfare were both stunning works of art and powerful ways to convey shared values and beliefs. Their unique abstract style set them apart from the classical world, but their technological accomplishments stand on par with the finest achievements of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
2,000 years ago valuable objects like this were cast into rivers. This magnificent shield was found in the River Thames at Battersea Bridge. It was not made for serious warfare as it is too short to provide sensible protection. Instead, it was probably made for flamboyant display. The highly polished bronze and glinting red glass would have made for a great spectacle.
The Battersea shield. Iron Age, c. 350–50 BC. Found in the River Thames, London, England.
Find out more about #Celtic art and history and book tickets at This 7th-century coin may be the earliest known depiction of a Muslim, the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik. The Umayyad dynasty were the first Muslim rulers to govern Egypt. This coin shows Abd al-Malik holding a sword and surrounded by the shahada, meaning ‘the testimony’ – a statement of faith in the Oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God’s Prophet.
Discover how Egypt’s religious and political landscape was transformed over 12 centuries in our #EgyptExhibition, opening 29 October.
#Islam #Muslim #coin #Islamic Christians adopted the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible as their Old Testament and understood many of its stories in the context of the death and resurrection of Jesus. This ivory box, known as a pyxis, shows Daniel, who was thrown into a lions’ den by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar but saved by his faith. On the other side, an angel rushes forward behind a ram, referring to the story where a ram is substituted for Abraham’s son at the last minute as a sacrifice to God.
Discover how Egypt’s religious and political landscape was transformed over 12 centuries in our #EgyptExhibition. In 4th-century Egypt many people of different faiths wore amulets, which were believed to provide protection. The menorah – a seven-branched lampstand – is one of the few ways of identifying Jewish material in Egypt. In time, it became the most common symbol of Jewish identity. Judaism never became a state religion in Egypt, but it had a thriving Jewish population from the Roman through to the Islamic periods. 
Find out more about Jews in Egypt in our forthcoming #EgyptExhibition

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