Hélène Virenque, Egyptologist
Since the start of excavations three weeks ago, room three – to the north of the room where Mary Shepperson found the decorated lintel – of house E13.6 has demanded most of my attention. Last week we revealed the walls of a phase beneath the house, which might be part of a long magazine, of the type already found in this area during an earlier season.
Rather different, here, is the construction of small walls one brick-width thick, delimiting two small spaces within the possible storage magazines.
Among the sand, mudbrick rubble and ceramics which filled this area, we came across pigments: lumps of yellow and red ochre (a natural resource), but also blue pigment, which must be made from transforming calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The blue pigment was found on ceramic sherds, on which it was prepared before use. We also found small blocks of pigment where one side has been flattened through rubbing, while the other has been impressed with the fingers of the ancient painter.
Completing the picture, a large granodiorite stone was found in the northern of the two small spaces; yellow pigment adhering to the depression in the working surface indicates this stone was used for pigment preparation.
Usually, raw pigments were mixed with a medium such as gum arabic or egg-white, before being applied. Perhaps these colours were being prepared to paint the walls of some rooms. Many were plastered with plain clay, but we have found evidence of red and white-painted walls. Fragments of painted plaster, possibly from a household shrine, found in 2011, display a similar colour palette, with reds, blues and yellows.
Thus far we can only be sure that these small – perhaps short-lived – spaces were used to prepare colour pigments. It does not mean the space was a dedicated workshop, as small-scale craft activities are known to have taken place within people’s houses.