British Museum blog

Amara West 2012: excavating one last tomb


Mohamed Saad, Inspector, National Corporation of Antiquities and Museums, Sudan and Amara West Field School participant

I spent the end of the season excavating a chamber tomb, Grave 319. The tomb features a two metre-wide burial chamber on the western side of a shaft cut into the alluvial surface; no above ground architecture is preserved.

A moment of contemplation: Mohamed recording G319

A moment of contemplation: Mohamed recording G319

On the east side, we found the top of a doorway to another chamber, but this proved to be only 10 cm deep – for some reason plans to cut an eastern chamber were never completed. Some very large schist slabs found lying in the shaft must once have covered the grave.

Glazed steatite scarab (F8365)

Glazed steatite scarab (F8365)

As often at Amara West, these heavy stones did not protect this grave from looting in ancient times. Nevertheless, we recovered the skeletal remains of four individuals within the sandy deposit inside the western chamber.

Remnants of the funerary equipment buried with the deceased individuals indicated the range of original burial goods: pieces of wood and painted plaster (showing at least one individual was buried in a decorated coffin), ostrich egg shell, an Egyptian-style beer jar and a fragment of a wooden headrest.

Standing out among this material was the bright blue of a glazed scarab, bearing the inscription: ‘Ramesses, beloved of Amun-Ra and Ra-Horakhty, born of the gods, who founded the Two Lands’.

While this inscription mentions Ramesses II, the scarab might have been made after his long reign. Furthermore, we will never know which of the four individuals was buried with the scarab.

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Amara West 2012: the end of work on site


Neal Spencer, British Museum

Work on site finished yesterday, with final recording, photography and then the logistics of getting all our equipment back by boat to the expedition house after sunset.

A last sunset over the ancient town

A last sunset over the ancient town

Some of our workmen, experienced in building mudbrick architecture on Ernetta island, constructed new walls along the ancient walls of house E13.7, to preserve the painted plaster surface from wind erosion over the coming months.

Ghazafi Mohamed and Hassan Nouri constructing protective walls in house E13.7

Ghazafi Mohamed and Hassan Nouri constructing protective walls in house E13.7

In the next few days we’ll be closing the house, moving objects to the Sudan National Museum in Khartoum and starting our journeys home….

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Amara West 2012: a splash of colour….


Neal Spencer, British Museum

The houses at Amara West can look a little drab to the modern eye: brown mud walls, often with brown mud plaster and even brown clay floors. We are missing the wooden furniture and any textiles that might have broken this monotony, but it is also clear that some parts of houses were brightly painted.

British Museum conservator Philip Kevin has been studying and conserving fragments of painted plaster on mud from Mat Dalton’s excavations in house E13.7 last year. After removing a rather dull white plaster layer from one fragment (F5133d), we can now see that earlier decoration featured yellow, blue, red and black.

Painted decoration from house E13.7

Painted decoration from house E13.7

It seems to consist of a yellow area bordered with a black line, and a more complex decorative motif to the right, which might have framed a door, or the shrine we believe was located in this room.

The same fragment, before removal of the white layer

The same fragment, before removal of the white layer

Further fragments will hopefully reveal more of the room’s original decoration, and the discovery of areas where pigments might have been prepared provides potential for further avenues of research.

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Amara West 2012: coffin mask emerges from a pyramid tomb


Michaela Binder, Durham University

Painted plaster mask on a coffin lid, as revealed in G309.

Painted plaster mask on a coffin lid, as revealed in G309.

There is a general rule in archaeology, the most important finds always come at the very end of the season… and why should it be any different at Amara West?

In the western chamber of pyramid tomb G309, Åshild Vågene has started to reveal a Ramesside coffin made of wood and decorated with painted plaster.

So far, we have exposed most of the red-painted face of a coffin mask, shown with large yellow earrings and a black wig.

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Amara West 2012: through ancient doorways


Neal Spencer, British Museum

Five weeks ago, Mary Shepperson revealed the remains of a stone doorway, tumbled into room two of house E13.6. Over the last few days we have reconstructed the gateway in the courtyard of our house – albeit laid flat on the ground rather than vertical…

Reconstructed sandstone door to room three of house E13.6

Reconstructed sandstone door to room three
of house E13.6

The imposing appearance of the doorway is now more evident, standing 2.35m tall, with a passageway of 88cm wide by 1.75m tall. In terms of scale, many of our field team would have to stoop to walk through the door.

The lintel is made from an unusually fine sandstone – perhaps from Sai island – whereas the doorjambs are of the poor quality sandstone we more often encounter. This doorway would have been set into the mudbrick wall.

The jambs are not inscribed – any inscription would have been into a layer of white plaster, now largely disappeared. On the lintel, the red- and yellow-painted hieroglyphs invoke the god Amun-Ra and Horus Lord of Ta-sety, and also refer to king Tuthmosis III.

Doorway in house E13.9 (excavated 2009)

Doorway in house E13.9 (excavated 2009)

Interestingly, this door was not the main house door, but rather framed the entrance to the central reception room, with a low bench against its back wall. As such it may have marked the transition from more prosaic spaces at the front of the house, towards a more formal space which could be used for welcoming visitors.

Beyond lay two more rooms – presumably the most private areas of the house.

A doorway in an adjacent and contemporary house (E13.9), excavated in 2009, simply lined with mud plaster and with unworked schist slabs for a lintel and threshold, shows how simple internal house doors could be at Amara West.

 

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Amara West 2012: fertility figurines discovered


Hélène Virenque, Egyptologist

Mary Shepperson and I found three small clay figurines in house E13.6, some of the few anthropomorphic representations found at Amara West.

Clay female figurines from house E13.6 (left-right F6018, F5998, F5996)

Clay female figurines from house E13.6 (left-right F6018, F5998, F5996)

Although incomplete, the three figurines have the same rectangular shape and a fine polished surface. They each depict a naked woman, in a very schematic form, with only the breasts and a pubic triangle shown in detail. The breasts are usually added as separate pieces of clay, and thus easily break off, as with two of our examples. The pubic triangle was marked with a series of small holes. None feature legs or arms.

Wooden figurine of a woman with clay hair, from Thebes about 1750 BC. British Museum collection

Wooden figurine of a woman with clay hair, from Thebes about 1750 BC. British Museum collection

Such representations are well known in ancient Egypt, especially from the Middle Kingdom onwards. By emphasing the genitalia, they evoke the woman as a source of fertility and thus could be associated with the cult of the goddess Hathor.

Some similar statuettes were found in Upper Egypt, placed in the temple of Deir el-Bahri during the New Kingdom. Other more elaborate types of fertility figurine, in painted wood, are known from late Middle Kingdom tombs.

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A unique form of decoration


Jamie Hood, British Museum

As work on the Chiseldon Iron Age cauldrons progresses we are constantly making discoveries. Possibly the most exciting feature we have found so far is a decorated handle.

The decorated handle and section of rim came from a cauldron that had broken into several pieces during burial due to the weight of the overlying soil. Although we had used X-radiography to examine the handle fragment in its soil block before we began conservation, it was difficult to make out the surface due to the dense soil and corroded condition of the metal. This meant that when I was removing the soil I had to progress extremely slowly. However, it made discovering the decoration below especially exciting.

X-radiograph of the handle before conservation

X-radiograph of the handle before conservation

The decoration consists of three curved plates that have been riveted below the rim on either side of and directly beneath the handle. The additional plates were carefully made and are likely not only to have been decorative, but also served to strengthen the point where the handle is attached.

Decorated handle after conservation.

Decorated handle after conservation.

While the plates could represent abstract decoration they strongly resemble a cow’s head, with the side-plates representing ears, the central plate a muzzle and the handle taking the form of boldly curved horns. Stylised decoration inspired by the shape of animals was not uncommon in the Iron Age and its association with feasting in this context is particularly relevant. However, decoration on cauldrons is extremely rare and this is a significant and exciting discovery.

Three-dimensional image of the handle

Three-dimensional image of the handle

To help with the interpretation Stephen Crummy, an illustrator from the Department of Prehistory and Europe at the British Museum, has been scanning the decorated handle with a laser to make a three-dimensional image which will show its shape far more accurately and aid in creating a virtual reconstruction of the vessel.

The Chiseldon cauldrons research project is supported by the Leverhulme Trust

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Amara West 2012: preserving ancient basketry, textiles and wood


Philip Kevin, British Museum

Many objects discovered in the cemetery at Amara West require conservation to even allow them to be lifted, as they cannot support their own weight without consolidation.

This is particularly true with organic material, which tends to be poorly preserved in the burial conditions here. In addition to natural degradation through desiccation and the effects of termites, disturbance by looters (ancient and modern) has left objects in a very fragile condition.

Tools of the trade: consolidating fragile organic remains

Tools of the trade: consolidating fragile organic remains

The roofs of the burial chambers were often collapsed as looters entered to gain access to grave contents. The resulting fall of sharp schist gravel ripped through and crushed much of what lay below, including the coffin found in grave G309. Careful excavations by Åshild Vågene revealed traces of wood and plaster.

Tight working conditions: preparing to lift the bed in G314

Tight working conditions: preparing to lift the bed in G314

These coffins are constructed from wood onto which a thin layer of plaster is applied to all surfaces; this is then painted, and in some cases varnished with a plant resin. Our two coffin fragments (of 20cm by 10cm) had only tiny traces of the internal plaster remaining, but pieces of crumbly wood were still in place. The outer plaster skin has survived in better condition, and is painted.

In order to impart some strength to allow the pieces to be lifted, I started by strengthening the wood and plaster with a mixture of solvent and a synthetic adhesive. It was impossible to remove the fine sand and soil without losing original wood and plaster; even using a small blower would cause some plaster to disappear in a cloud of white dust.

Having consolidated the wood and plaster, an additional support was attached to the back (inside of the coffin) and the fragments were then lifted and returned to the expedition house where they await further treatment.

In another grave being excavated by Laurel Engbring and Michaela Binder, fragments of a Nubian-style funerary bed and a basket were revealed, and I treated them in a similar manner before lifting. A fragment of textile (approximately 10cm2) was also conserved in this grave, offering a rare chance to study the weaving technique used.

This is my first time in Sudan, and it has been fantastic – except when I missed my step clambering out of the boat in the 6.30am darkness, and ended up in the Nile.

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Amara West 2012: changing funerary practises


Michaela Binder, Durham University

Up in Cemetery D at Amara West it’s getting increasingly busy as we look towards the last week of excavation. For the last few days I’ve been working with Laurel Engbring on G314 – which has turned out to be one of the most important discoveries this year, with two burial chambers underneath a tumulus superstructure.

Laurel recovering a large vessel from the western chamber in G314

Laurel recovering a large vessel from the western chamber in G314

The large amount of schist slabs covering and blocking the narrow shaft may have prevented the thorough looting (ancient and modern) we often encounter in Cemetery D. Therefore, both chambers provide us with a glimpse into burial customs and cultural expression in the time period after the Egyptian occupation of Amara West, from around 1000 BC onwards. Preservation of organic materials and human remains is also excellent in this grave.

3,000 years of bed-making – ancient fragment from G314 (left), modern example (right).

3,000 years of bed-making – ancient fragment
from G314 (left), modern example (right).

In the western chamber we have revealed one wooden burial bed, and there may be one beneath it. Seven individuals were buried in this small chamber (five metres-square), including adults and children – lying over each other in a rather confusing manner.

The burial positions changed over the period during which the grave was used: the uppermost were buried in a Nubian manner, tightly flexed, whereas the bodies underneath were buried in an extended position, typical of burials in Egypt. A third extended burial has just been found in the entrance area to the western chamber.

What the motivations were for laying out the bodies in this way is difficult to say.

The pottery assemblage from this tomb includes vessel types so far unknown at Amara West, suggesting the development of a local tradition in which Egyptian vessel forms were taken and modified to suit local tastes.

And of course there’s plenty of interesting details for the physical anthropologist. Just yesterday, Laurel recovered an individual with a healed fracture of the sacrum (a large bone at the base of the spine) and a lumbar vertebrae – indications of what must have been an incredibly painful fall on the individual’s backside…

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Amara West 2012: approaching the final week


Neal Spencer, British Museum

The weather continues to surprise, with strong and cold winds making the sky seem foggy. We’re hearing that fellow excavators near Khartoum, and as far north as Luxor in Egypt, are also reporting strange conditions.

Workmen and excavators keeping warm before work starts

At Amara, when we arrive before 7am, the workmen are usually huddling around a fire to keep warm. Far from electrical lights, we also become more aware of the cycles of the moon – we’ve just had a full moon, and work started today as the moon set over the town and cemetery.

The moon setting over Amara West at 06.58 on 9 February 2012

We start our last week of digging on Saturday – trying to answer some outstanding questions, but most importantly ensuring everything we’ve excavated has been properly documented so that research and post-excavation work can continue over the rest of the year.

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Most Greek sculpture that survives from antiquity is carved from white marble, of which the Mediterranean has many natural sources. A relationship has often been assumed between the pure white of freshly cut marble and the idealism of Greek art. In fact, the opposite is true. Colour was intrinsic to ancient ideas of beauty. For centuries this has been a subject of fascination and controversy. The great Italian Renaissance sculptor Michelangelo revived the Greek idea of the human body but denied the use of colour. This was partly due to negative associations with the painted saints of the medieval period. During the European Enlightenment of the 1750s onwards, and increasingly into our own time, the preferred aesthetic was a truth to materials. Painting and gilding were seen as unnecessary and undesirable.

Sculpture in antiquity was often adorned not only with colour but also with different materials. The Greek marble statue of an archer reconstructed here was drilled and fitted with metal attachments. The figure originally held a bronze bow and arrow and a quiver was fixed to his left hip by a metal dowel. Individual locks of hair were made of lead. The colourful design of the man’s knitted all-in-one garment, often worn by peoples from the east, is clearly seen weathered into the marble surface under controlled lighting.

You can see this wonderful object in our exhibition #DefiningBeauty, until 5 July 2015.
#exhibition #BritishMuseum #ancientGreece #sculpture #art

Plaster cast of archer with reconstructed paint, based on a Greek original of about 490–480 BC, from the Temple of Aphaia at Aigina. Staatliche Antikensammlung und Glyptothek, Munich. Uta Uta Tjangala's masterpiece Yumari is a highlight of‪ #IndigenousAustralia, opening a week today
#exhibition #art #history #BritishMuseum #Australia #museum Hans Sloane's collection also ended up as the basis of the @natural_history_museum and the @britishlibrary!
To make more room for the increasing collections held by the British Museum, the natural history collections were moved to a new building in South Kensington in the 1880s. This eventually became the Natural History Museum. These images show some of the natural history specimens on display, including giraffes and a mastodon!
In 1997, the library departments left the Museum to be re-housed at the new British Library in St Pancras.
#history #BritishMuseum #collection #animals #books Hans Sloane's encyclopaedic collection became the cornerstone of the British Museum.
This drawer was once part of the materia medica - a sort of pharmaceutical cabinet - in the collection of Sloane. The cabinet had several drawers, each carefully constructed to keep out destructive insects. Some drawers had small compartments like this example, others contained glazed boxes with seeds, fruit, bark, roots, gums and resins inside. Each had a label written by Sloane with a catalogue number. The botanical or medicinal name of the subtance, where it came from and who collected it were then recorded in his catalogues of his collection.
As Sloane's interest in natural history grew along with his income, he was able to widen the scope of his collection from being primarily medical to being more encyclopaedic, representing the widest possible variety of substances and artefacts for his own reference and for others to consult.
© 2003 The Natural History Museum @natural_history_museum 
#history #BritishMuseum #collection #museum Our founder, Sir Hans Sloane, was born ‪#onthisday in 1660.
This engraving after a portrait  by T Murray shows him at the age of 68. The inscription at the bottom can be translated as: 'Sir Hans Sloane, baronet / Pres[ident]. of the College of Physicians of London and the Royal Society. etc.'
Sloane was born in Ireland in 1660, and trained as a doctor of medicine. At the age of 27 he went to the West Indies as personal doctor to the Governor of Jamaica and while living there he began to form his great collection of natural history specimens. For the rest of his long life he collected plants, fossils and minerals, as well as objects from ancient Rome, Egypt and Assyria. He also amassed an impressive collection of books, manuscripts, prints and drawings.
#history #BritishMuseum Leonardo da Vinci was born #onthisday in 1452. 
This study of a warrior is drawn in metalpoint, specifically silverpoint, a popular medium with Early Renaissance artists. It is most suitable for detailed and careful drawings. Metalpoint was a good method of training young apprentice artists as it required control and discipline. 
Here, the silverpoint line, which has turned grey in the atmosphere, is thin and delicate. The detail is extraordinary: the armour, the curls in his hair and the splendid elaborate helmet are even exceeded by the modelling of the man's face and the lion on his breastplate. Endless patience must have been required of the young Leonardo to produce the very fine shadows of the man's face, each a separate line.
#art #daVinci #Leonardo #history #drawing #silverpoint
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