British Museum blog

Amara West 2012: Kerma pottery


Marie Millet

Earlier this season, we discovered a Kerma grave (G308) in cemetery D. Being accustomed to finding New Kingdom (or post New Kingdom) pottery in this cemetery, it was surprising to find four pottery vessels typical of the Kerma civilization, especially a bowl with incised decoration on the rim.

Fragment of a Kerma vessel (C8075), with incised rim decoration, from Grave 308

Example of a black-topped red ware vessel (C8077) from Grave 308.

Classic Kerma beaker, British Museum EA 55424, from Kerma. C. 1750-1650 BC

The pottery in the grave can be dated, by looking at parallels from other sites, to the middle of the third millenium BC or early second millenium BC, so many centuries before the Egyptian town was founded in the reign of Seti I (1290-1279 BC).

During the Kerma civilization, pottery is the most abundant artefact in graves. All hand-made from Nile clay mixed with fine straw, the pots were made by building up coils of clay. Despite being aware of the Egyptian technique of making vessels on a potter’s wheel, the coil technique was retained, and very fine vessels were produced.

Most Kerma culture pots are known as “black-topped redware”, as the interior and rim is black and the exterior surface is red. This type of pottery is common in Egypt during the Predynastic Period only, but continues in Nubia through later periods.

To achieve the black-topped appearance, the unfired vessels are placed in an open area, then covered with sand, and sometimes earth, sand and ash. Placed upside down, the parts exposed to the air are turned red through oxidisation, whereas the rims turn black through carbonisation. In addition to polishing, some are incised with decoration near the rim, as with one example from this grave.

The discovery of an early Kerma burial suggests a Nubian community lived nearby, long before the Egyptian town was built … In the town, we have so far found only one sherd from a Classic Kerma beaker (C4382), with a distinctive blue-grey band between the black and red.

Leave a comment or tweet using #amarawest

Find out more about the Amara West
research project

Filed under: Amara West, Archaeology

One Response - Comments are closed.

  1. Nick says:

    The pottery is fascinating — thank you for sharing.

    Like

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 10,343 other followers

Categories

Follow @britishmuseum on Twitter

British Museum on Instagram

The next gallery in our #MuseumOfTheFuture series is Room 67: Korea. The Korea Foundation Gallery is currently closed for refurbishment and will reopen on 16 December 2014. You can find out more about the refurb at koreabritishmuseum.tumblr.com  The unique culture of Korea combines a strong sense of national identity with influences from other parts of the Far East. Korean religion, language, geography and everyday life were directly affected by the country’s geographic position, resulting in a rich mix of art and artefacts.
Objects on display in Room 67 date from prehistory to the present day and include ceramics, metalwork, sculpture, painting, screen-printed books and illuminated manuscripts.
A reconstruction of a traditional sarangbang, or scholar’s study, is also on display and was built by contemporary Korean craftsmen. This is Room 66, Ethiopia and Coptic Egypt. It's the next gallery space in our #MuseumOfTheFuture series.
By the 4th century AD, Christianity was flourishing in both Egypt and Ethiopia. Christian Egyptians became known as the Copts (from the Greek name for Egyptians) and the church maintained strong links with its Ethiopian counterparts. Since antiquity, Ethiopia had been a major trade route, linking Egypt and the Mediterranean with India and the Far East.
The resulting history of cultural exchange and religious diversity is illustrated through objects in Room 66, which reflect the faiths and identities which coexisted in Egypt and Ethiopia. Objects from towns, monasteries and settlements range from decorated textiles and architectural elements to sculpture and ceramics. It's time for our next #MuseumOfTheFuture gallery. This is Room 65, the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery of Sudan, Egypt and Nubia. Ancient Nubia, the Nile Valley upstream of the First Cataract, now straddles the border between Egypt and Sudan. Rich and vibrant cultures developed in this region at the same time as Pharaonic Egypt. Among them was the earliest sub-Saharan urban culture in Africa, which was based at Kerma.
These cultures traded extensively with Egypt and for two brief periods Nubian kingdoms dominated their northern neighbour.
The objects on display in Room 65 illustrate these indigenous pagan, Christian and Islamic cultures and the interaction between Nubia and Egypt. This is our next gallery space in the #MuseumOfTheFuture series. It's Room 64, the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery of Early Egypt. Rapid advances in the technology and social organisation of Egypt during the 5th millennium BC produced a material culture of increasing sophistication. Further innovations followed in about 3100 BC when the separate Predynastic peoples of Upper and Lower Egypt were united under a single ruler. The resulting increase in wealth and strong central control led to dramatic achievements in architecture, writing and fine goods, culminating in the building of the Great Pyramids of Giza in around 2600 BC.
Objects on display in Room 64 illustrate the cultural, technological and political development of early civilisation in Egypt throughout this period. In this picture you can see Gebelein Man, a mummy who was naturally preserved in the desert sands, and who used to have the unofficial nickname of Ginger (although the Museum doesn't use this name). In the background you can see an interactive virtual autopsy of the mummy which was installed in the newly refurbished gallery last year. It's Toulouse-Lautrec's 150th birthday! Here's his poster for a Parisian cabaret 
#history #art #artist #Paris Although this gilded cartonnage mask of a mummy conveys vitality and alertness, the features are more bland and idealised than those of other masks. The eyes, ears, nose, mouth and chin are highly stylised and not fully integrated into the face. The collar, the wig and the necklace with an ankh (‘life’) pendant, are attributes showing that the deceased has entered the afterlife and been assimilated with the gods. A winged scarab beetle on the top and images of gods on the back also emphasise the funerary character of the mask.

The use of gold was connected to the belief that the sun god Re, with whom the mummy hoped to be united, had flesh of pure gold. The back of the wig is decorated in many colours, with a row of deities, a ba and falcon with outstretched wings and seven short columns of near-unintelligible hieroglyphs.

See this cartonnage mask in our exhibition #8mummies – now extended until 19 April 2015.
#MummyMonday #mummies
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 10,343 other followers

%d bloggers like this: