British Museum blog

The role of maps in Shakespeare’s England


Peter Barber, Head of Map Collections, British Library

The most obvious place a person in Shakespeare’s England would have encountered a map would have been in a Bible. Protestant Bibles in particular contained maps to prove the veracity of the scriptures, and this tells us a lot about the role of maps in society. Maps were used sometimes (but not often) to get from A to B, and from about the 1520s onwards for administration purposes, but most of all they were regarded, quite consciously, as stages for human history.

If you were lucky enough, you might have been invited into the home of a merchant. It’s quite likely you would have seen wall maps adorning his parlour and his dining room. The most common maps would have shown the Holy Land as well as maps of the continents of the world. These maps were not there to show where his ships were travelling – their purpose was to show that its owner was a man who knew about the world.

Most wall maps served propagandas purposes. On the whole maps, whatever their size, were much more useful for merchants than for seamen. The merchant could use them for planning purposes but, as English sailors told the authorities repeatedly in the 16th century, charts weren’t much use once you were actually at sea because in the northern Atlantic it was usually so misty you couldn’t see any coastlines: it was far more practical to navigate using a plumb line to measure the depth of the sea, rather like a mole on land.

So rather than maps being navigational tools, maps – when not being used for practical purposes on land – tended to be symbolic, and educational. In 1570 the first modern atlas of printed maps was published, called The Theatre of the Lands of the World. This idea of the world as a stage, picked up by Shakespeare, was around long beforehand.

Shakespeare’s Restless World is on BBC Radio 4
from 16 April to 11 May, at 13.45 and 19.45 weekdays.

Listen to today’s programme England Goes Global:
Drake’s Circumnavigation Medal

Find out more:
The unveiling of Britain – maps of the British Isles
Maps at the British Library
Maps at the National Maritime Museum
British Library

Filed under: Shakespeare's Restless World, What's on, ,

One Response - Comments are closed.

  1. From childhood, I felt fascinated by maps.. and had this feeling that knowing them would make me knowledgeable about that country/world! So, I too agree that perhaps the ancient merchants too showed their wealth of knowledge in terms of maps.

    Like

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 14,349 other followers

Categories

Follow @britishmuseum on Twitter

British Museum on Instagram

As part of our #MuseumInstaSwap with @ImperialWarMuseums, we’ve been given special access to the Churchill War Rooms – located deep below the streets of Westminster.
This is Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s bedroom, which includes his private desk, briefcase and papers, his bed and chamber pot and even an original cigar! The bedroom is located close to the Map Room, keeping Churchill as close as possible to the epicentre of Cabinet War Rooms.
Following the surrender of the Japanese Forces the doors to the War Rooms were locked on 16 August 1945 and the complex was left undisturbed until Parliament ensured its preservation as a historic site in 1948. Knowledge of the site and access to it remained highly restricted until the late 1970s when @ImperialWarMuseums began the task of preserving the site and its contents, making them accessible to as wide an audience as possible and opening them to the public in 1984.
Discover more stories from London’s museums with #MuseumInstaSwap We’re exploring the Churchill War Rooms – the secret underground headquarters of the British government during the Second World War – in partnership with @ImperialWarMuseums for #MuseumInstaSwap.
The fear that London would be the target of aerial bombardment had troubled the government since the First World War and in 1938 the basement of a Whitehall building was chosen as the site for the Cabinet War Rooms. From 1940 to 1945 hundreds of men and women would spend thousands of vital hours here and it soon became the inner sanctum of British government.
Here you can see the wall of the Map Room, detailing the positions of British convoys across the world, which has not changed since 1945! Today in #MuseumInstaSwap we’re beneath the streets of Westminster to discover the hidden secrets of the #WW2 Cabinet War Rooms, which is part of @ImperialWarMuseums.
This is the underground bunker that protected the heart of Britain’s government during the Second World War as Prime Minister Winston Churchill and his inner circle plotted the route to Allied victory. It’s an amazing experience to step back in time and walk in the footsteps of Churchill, glimpsing what life would have been like during the tense days and nights of the Second World War. This archive photo shows Churchill at his desk in the Map Room at the Cabinet War Rooms. Beside him, Captain Pym of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) takes a telephone call. To this day, the Map Room has remained exactly as it was left on the day the lights were switched off in 1945.
© IWM (HU 44788) The collections of the @ImperialWarMuseums present stories of wartime life from many perspectives. During the First World War, hunger seriously affected the civilian populations of all the combatant nations.
Germany introduced numerous government controls on food production and sale, and these rationing cards show how the distribution of essentials such as meat, bread and milk was restricted. But the British naval blockade caused real suffering, even starvation. Serious shortages of food and resources led to price rises, riots and strikes.
Discover more stories from London’s museums with #MuseumInstaSwap In the First World War Galleries of @ImperialWarMuseums there are many stories of what life was like for ordinary civilians. These ration books show how staple foodstuffs like meat, butter and sugar were carefully distributed in the UK, where hunger caused by naval blockages was a serious threat on the home front.
The government introduced rationing in London early in 1918 and extended it nationwide by the summer. People now got fair shares of food and although supplies were limited, nobody starved. British civilians defied German expectations by accepting this state intrusion into their daily lives.
Discover more stories from London’s museums with #MuseumInstaSwap MuseumInstaSwap Today for #MuseumInstaSwap we’re exploring the fascinating First World War Galleries at @ImperialWarMuseums, to learn more about the impact of the war on ordinary people.
Hunger seriously affected the civilian populations of all the combatant nations. Agriculture and food distribution suffered as a result of the war, and naval blockades reduced food imports, which forced up prices and encouraged hoarding. Governments responded by putting price controls on staple foodstuffs.
Women and children queuing for food became a common sight in cities across Europe. This photograph from the archives of @ImperialWarMuseums shows food queues in Reading, England. The need to queue was lessened when rationing was introduced during 1918.
© IWM (Q 56276)
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 14,349 other followers

%d bloggers like this: