British Museum blog

The theatre of monarchy

Shakespeare’s Restless World is currently being broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Today’s episode Europe: Triumphs of the Past looks at displays of power.


Jonathan Bate, Shakespeare scholar

Ceremony is the thing that makes a monarchy happen. In Shakespeare’s Henry V, the King reflects on the importance of ceremony, but he refers to it as `idol’ ceremony.

The English have always done royal ceremony and pageantry very well and it is one of the main devices that keep the monarchy going. So in Shakespeare’s time, something like the funeral procession of Queen Elizabeth or the coronation procession of King James would have been huge public events, the streets of London would have been thronged and the elite would actually have been there in the Abbey, at the front when the coronation or the burial took place.

There is an interesting difference between the way that Queen Elizabeth and King James used ceremony. Elizabeth, perhaps because of her insecurity about her own position on the throne, as a woman, a woman without an heir, and a Protestant, relied a lot on public ceremony, processions through the streets and indeed through the nation; visitations to great aristocratic households. She also moved a lot from palace to palace; the court was mobile. One week they would be at the palace at Whitehall and another week they would be down river at Greenwich, another week up river at Nonesuch or Richmond. The public saw this extraordinary bejewelled figure of the Queen.

King James was reluctant to display himself in public in this way. He did make use of ceremony, in particular made use of theatrical entertainments with the court masks in which the royal family and the courtiers participated in theatre and music and dancing. But this was very much an enclosed thing aimed at the elite who were invited to attend, aimed at visiting royalty, visiting diplomats and so on. So there is an interesting contrast between the importance of public spectacle for Queen Elizabeth and this more private, enclosed sense of the court that King James had.

Shakespeare’s Restless World is on BBC Radio 4
from 16 April to 11 May, at 13.45 and 19.45 weekdays.

Listen to today’s programme Europe: Triumphs of the Past

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In 2000, the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court designed by Foster and Partners transformed the Museum’s inner courtyard into the largest covered public square in Europe. We love this striking photo by @adders77 showing this incredible space at night #regram #repost
Share your photos of the British Museum with us using #mybritishmuseum and tag @britishmuseum This wonderful photo by @what_fran_saw captures the stunning Great Court #regram #repost
The two-acre space of the Great Court is enclosed by a spectacular glass roof made of 3,312 unique pieces!
Share your photos of the British Museum with us using #mybritishmuseum and tag @britishmuseum The roaring lions on the walls of King Nebuchadnezzar II’s palace represented the Babylonian king himself and were intended to astonish approaching visitors. Nebuchadnezzar commissioned major building projects in Babylon to glorify the capital of his empire. Glazed bricks in bright shades of blue, yellow and white were favoured for public monuments in order to emphasise both divine and royal power. These works displayed the might of the city and its king, who commanded unlimited resources.
Glazed brick panel showing a roaring lion from the Throne Room of Nebuchadnezzar II, 605–562 BC. From Babylon, southern Iraq. On loan from Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin.
Share your photos using #mybritishmuseum and tagging @britishmuseum.
#lion #art #history #BritishMuseum Lions have perhaps been adopted as a symbol more than any other animal. They are seen as proud, fierce and magnificent – characteristics that made kings and countries want to associate themselves with these charismatic big cats. As well as being the national symbol of England and Scotland, the lion is in many ways the symbol of the British Museum. Lions guard both entrances to the building. At the Montague Place entrance are the languid lions carved by Sir George Frampton, and on the glass doors of the Main entrance are the cat-like beasts designed by the sculptor Alfred Stevens in 1852.
This lion can be found on the wooden doorframe at the south entrance to the Museum, and its nose is polished smooth by the many visitors who rub it for luck on their way in. Share your photos using #mybritishmuseum and tagging @britishmuseum This colossal lion in the Great Court is one of the most photographed objects in the Museum. It weighs more than 6 tons and comes from a tomb in the ancient cemetery of Knidos, a coastal city now in south-west Turkey. The tomb stood on the edge of a cliff overlooking the approach to Knidos harbour. The building was 18 metres high and the lion was on top of its pyramid roof. The hollow eyes of the lion were probably originally inset with coloured glass, and the reflection of light may have been an aid to sailors navigating the notoriously difficult coast. It is carved from one piece of marble, brought across the Aegean Sea from Mt Pentelikon near the city of Athens. Opinions vary as to when it was built. One suggestion is that it commemorated a naval battle off Knidos in 394 BC.
We’ll be sharing more lovely lions this week! Share your photos using #mybritishmuseum and tagging @britishmuseum. Our next special exhibition will explore the remarkable story of Sicily. Discover an island with a cosmopolitan history and identity – a place where the unique mix of peoples gave rise to an extraordinary cultural flowering.
Norman Sicily was a centre of multiculturalism and its art reveals a unique mix of influences. The Norman kings invited Byzantine mosaicists from Constantinople to decorate their cathedrals and palaces. Spectacular golden mosaics can still be found in Roger II’s palace chapel and the cathedrals at Cefalù and Monreale. This mosaic, depicting the Virgin Mary, is all that remains of the extensive mosaics that once decorated Palermo Cathedral.
Book now for #SicilyExhibition, opening 21 April 2016 at britishmuseum.org/sicily 
Mosaic of the Madonna originally from Palermo Cathedral. Sicily, AD 1130–1189. © Museo Diocesano di Palermo.
#Sicily #Italy #art #mosaic #exhibition #BritishMuseum
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