British Museum blog

Building a nation

Shakespeare’s Restless World is currently being broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Today’s episode The Flag That Failed examines some of the challenges involved in uniting England and Scotland.

Design proposals for the new flag of Great Britain, from 1603-4. © The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland


John Morrill, Professor of Early Modern History, University of Cambridge

I think James had real problems with the union of England and Scotland from the very beginning. There was the great problem that he was a Scot taking over England – the junior kingdom taking over the senior kingdom, as it were – by which I mean that for many centuries the English had claimed that Scotland was a feudal dependency of England.

Such historical prejudices and historical legacies made it very difficult for a rapid movement. Initially, James went for an all-out push for union; political union, economic union, religious union. But very quickly he saw that the scale of the opposition was too great so he backed off and went for what he called the `union of hearts and minds’.

There was such a long animosity between the peoples of England and Scotland that the idea of them becoming one new people came up against a huge amount of prejudice. James wanted to try and get rid of this prejudice. For many centuries there had been border raiding and people in the far north of England rustling and stealing in southern Scotland and visa versa. What James did was to create a new administrative structure called the Middle Shires which brought the English and Scots together to sort out lawlessness in this particular region, and it worked pretty well.

James did small things wherever he could which slowly and surely moved the two nations towards being willing to have more of a union. He created a new coinage and, as we hear in today’s programme, he attempts to create a flag for this new nation.

What he couldn’t do is anything which affected legal freedom, and he couldn’t touch the property of the subjects in either kingdom without the agreements of his parliaments. The problem was the English would always preferred to create common institutions covering the whole of the island, so there would be one parliament, there would be one system of law, there would be one church. What the Scots preferred was a federal structure in which both countries retained independent institutions but they co-ordinated, they worked together. In a sense the Scots would always prefer devolution to integration.

Shakespeare’s Restless World is on BBC Radio 4
from 16 April to 11 May, at 13.45 and 19.45 weekdays.

Listen to today’s programme The Flag That Failed

Filed under: Shakespeare's Restless World, What's on, , , , , ,

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 8,633 other followers

Follow @britishmuseum on Twitter

British Museum on Instagram

Our new exhibition #Ming50Years is now open! Discover 50 years that changed China #china #history #art #exhibition Just 2 days until #Ming50Years opens! Here's one of the beautiful highlight objects.

Gilded bronze figure of Śākyamuni, the historical Buddha. Nanjing, China, Ming dynasty, Yongle mark and period, 1403–1424. It’s only 3 days until #Ming50Years opens! Have you booked your tickets? The Museum’s #AfricanRockArt project has now added over 4,000 digital photographs of rock paintings and engravings from the Sahara to the Museum’s online database. You can explore more of these stunning images on the project’s new interactive website http://www.britishmuseum.org/africanrockart Born #onthisday in 1890: author Agatha Christie. The British Museum held an exhibition in 2001–2002 called ‘Agatha Christie and Archaeology: Mystery in Mesopotamia’. It presented a fascinating look at the secret life of one of the world's most popular writers. Christie originally became interested in archaeology on a visit to the site of Ur (in modern Iraq) in 1928. It was there where she met her future husband, the archaeologist Max Mallowan, and became involved in excavation of the sites in Iraq and Syria that were to make his name. Watch curator Irving Finkel's documentary on The Real Noah's Ark on Channel 4 tonight at 20.00! #history #cuneiform #bible #noah #ark #tv #channel4
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 8,633 other followers

%d bloggers like this: