British Museum blog

Amara West 2012: the first glimpses of ancient living conditions and health

A burial at Amara West, SudanMichaela Binder, Durham University

After spending four months in the British Museum analysing skeletons from the ancient Egyptian town of Amara West this summer, our picture of health and living conditions there is becoming a little clearer.

I have now analysed 130 complete or almost complete individuals. My analyses indicate 35% of the individuals were sub-adults, which in itself is not surprising and not that high compared to other groups in antiquity. However, it is interesting to see only a very small number of children under the age of five, as very young children are generally more vulnerable to diseases. High percentages of infants in cemeteries are often an indicator of bad living conditions, and at Amara West, their absence is striking but could be explained by different burial rites – young children may have been buried elsewhere.

One of the rare burials of a 1-2 year-old child

One of the rare burials of a 1-2 year-old child

The high percentage of older children is notable, and indicates that people living at Amara West were exposed to unfavourable conditions such as a high degree of infectious diseases.

Diagnosis of infectious diseases in human remains is not easy. The changes in bones are often not specific and the same sign could be caused by a number of different conditions. Moreover, it also takes some time before bones become affected too. Therefore, only chronic diseases will leave an imprint.

Healed, badly aligned fracture of the left upper arm

Healed, badly aligned fracture of the left upper arm

The most common forms of infectious diseases found in the people from Amara West so far are signs of chronic sinusitis and also infections of the lung. They are visible as new bone formation on the inner side of the ribs and in the maxillary sinuses. The changes could be related to bad air quality, both in- and outdoors, such as smoke inside the houses, dust or sand, but also to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis.

More unfavourable living conditions are also indicated by the lengths of long bones in adult skeletons from the town. Even though height is generally determined by our genes, whether we fulfil our genetic potential depends on our state of health and nutrition during growth. At Amara West, females reached body heights of 154 cm on average, while men reached 166 cm.

In comparison, mean statures in the UK today are 175 cm for men, and 162 cm for women, according to a study published in 2002.

Another interesting finding in the human remains from Amara West so far is the high degree of fractures, particularly in the upper body. These injuries are usually associated with falls or crashes. But what happened to these people? The distribution of injuries is remarkably similar to what is observed with people involved in agricultural activities even today, especially those who regularly handle animals.

Leave a comment or tweet using #amarawest

Find out more about the Amara West research project

Filed under: Amara West, Archaeology, Egypt and Sudan, Research, ,

One Response - Comments are closed.

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 14,018 other followers

Categories

Follow @britishmuseum on Twitter

British Museum on Instagram

Can you guess the artist behind this work? 
All will be revealed at our special exhibition announcement tomorrow! #metalpoint Tower Bridge opened #onthisday in 1894. Here’s an early print of the iconic landmark.
#history #London #TowerBridge The mummy case of this temple doorkeeper called Padiamenet is covered with hieroglyphic inscriptions and religious images. The inscriptions on this brilliantly painted cartonnage tell us that he was the Chief Doorkeeper of the Domain of Ra, the Chief Attendant of Ra, and also Chief Barber of the Domain of Ra and of the temple of Amun. This largest scene shows Padiamenet, dressed in a long fringed robe, adoring the god Osiris, who is grasping the royal crook and flail. Behind him stands his sister, the goddess Isis.
Gain a unique insight into the lives of eight people over a remarkable 4,000 years in our #8mummies exhibition, closing 12 July #MummyMonday
#history #mummies #BritishMuseum Peter Paul Rubens was born #onthisday in 1577.
This is a magnificent drawing in both scale and style. It is drawn in black and yellow chalk, though Rubens also used a grey wash and some white heightening in order to bring the animal to life on paper.
The lioness is drawn from behind. Her front paw is raised and her mouth open, the fangs clearly visible. White heightening brings out the lighted area around the tail and the joints of the back legs. Both short and longer chalk strokes are used to suggest the different textures of the fur and mane.
Rubens used this drawing for a lioness in his painting of 'Daniel in the Lions' Den' (1613/15; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC). The vividness of the drawing is even more remarkable given that Rubens probably based his drawing on a bronze statue of a lion and not a living animal. The strong contour line in black chalk around the animal suggests that he was studying a model. However, Rubens had the gift and genius to invest an unmoving object with both life and movement, even if the highlights give the impression of a metallic sheen.
#art #artist #Rubens #history This striking photo taken by @charlesimperialpendragon shows the colossal limestone bust of Amenhotep III in the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery (Room 4). #regram #repost

Share your photos of the British Museum with us using #mybritishmuseum and tag @britishmuseum A #ThrowbackThursday from our #archives!
It is early morning in 1875 in the Main Entrance Hall of The British Museum, and staff are preparing for the public. Until 1878 the Museum was open on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and until midday on Saturdays. Tuesdays and Thursdays were reserved for students. The visiting hours varied with the seasons and during the summer months the Museum stayed open until 8 o'clock in the evening.
Staff stop work as the photographer Frederick York sets up his camera. Two men sit comfortably on a bench at the foot of the stairs. Another two, noticing the photographer, stop halfway down the stairs. As the long exposure needed for this early photograph has already started, their images appear faint and ghost-like. In the foreground is the Piranesi Vase which is now displayed in the Enlightenment Gallery.
#photograph #archive #throwback #tbt #BritishMuseum
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 14,018 other followers

%d bloggers like this: