British Museum blog

The British Museum’s 255th anniversary: from the archives

Architectural plans of Montagu House by architect Henry Flitcroft
Stephanie Alder, Archivist, British Museum

As the Museum announces record visitor figures for 2013, I took the opportunity to delve into the basement world of the Central Archive looking for any records relating to the public opening of the Museum 255 years ago today (15th January).

image of the The Central Archive store at the British Museum

The Central Archive store at the British Museum

The Central Archive is a rather mysterious place. When you enter through the port-holed door the first thing you notice is the chill, and the smell of old leather bound volumes. It is very exciting to think that within this strongroom sit many important records – some still untouched – providing crucial evidence of the foundation and development of the British Museum. As the Museum Archivist it is a privilege to be able to spend time surrounded by history.

architectural plans of Montagu House by architect Henry Flitcroft

Plans of Montague House by Henry Flitcroft (1697-1769)

When I initially opened a beautifully bound volume of plans of Montague House drawn by the architect Henry Flitcroft in 1725 I found it hard to believe that this was the first home of the British Museum. Until the Museum acquired the property, this grand mansion was the home of the 2nd Duke of Montagu and where many splendid social events took place during the early years of the eighteenth century. Flitcroft was careful to show every detail, even the slate roof tiles are drawn individually. Both formal and kitchen gardens are shown, as is the orchard to the west where Bedford Square now lies.

When you arrive at the Museum today and walk through the gates looking up at the colonnade in front of you, you would be excused for thinking that the Museum had always looked like this. Yet, on 15 January 1765 visitors would have walked down Great Russell Street and entered through a doorway opening leading to a brick paved courtyard. Once inside the Museum, the printed books were arranged on the ground floor, and manuscripts, natural history and ‘modern curiosities’ on the first. However, it isn’t just the architecture of the building that has dramatically changed over years – but how members of public gained access to the collections.

handwritten minutes of the British Museum Trustees

Minutes of the Trustees’ General Minutes from 7 April 1759, p. 255

When reading through the early minutes of the Trustees’ General Meetings, I came across a great number of discussions relating to public admission. The Trustees eventually decided that visits should be free, but by ticket only, applied for in advance and conducted around the collection in small groups by the staff, the first of whom were appointed in 1756. In a document titled ‘Regulations for Admission to a Sight of the British Museum’ it states that ‘five companies of not more than fifteen persons each, may be admitted in the Course of the Day, viz. One at each of the hours of Ten, Eleven, Twelve, One and Two. At each of those Hours, the directing Officer in waiting shall examine the Entries in the Book, and if none of the Persons inscribed be found exceptionable, he shall deliver to each of them a Ticket for immediate admission’. This rough figure of 75 visitors per day is a far cry from the visitor numbers recorded today.

The original proposed ticket for admission to view the Museum’s collections, located in the Trustees Original Papers of 1757

The original proposed ticket for admission to view the Museum’s collections, located in the Trustees Original Papers of 1757

It was expected that visitors to the Museum ‘be decent and orderly in their Appearance and Behaviour’, and the officers on duty were instructed to refuse admission anyone who disregarded this rule. The regulations went on to explain that ‘past experience has proven the necessity of this injunction’. In addition to this no children ‘apparently under ten years of age’ were permitted entry – both quite different to the Museum today when you can wear what you like and enjoy the collections from any age. By the 1830s, the Museum was operating an open admissions policy. Visitors to the Museum’s world collection have grown enormously since it first opened its doors to the public with in excess of 6.5 million welcomed today.

Read more about the Museum’s 255th anniversary

The Central Archive of the British Museum contains the administrative records of the Museum dating back to its foundation. For more information on the collection and how to make an appointment, please contact the Archivist at centralarchive@britishmuseum.org.

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  1. moxeyns says:

    Fascinating! Happy Birthday :)

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This beautiful photograph taken by @miracca shows a detail of the decoration on the South Stairs of the Museum. The patterns and colours on the walls and ceilings near the entrance to the Museum were inspired by classical Greek buildings, which would have been brightly decorated. #regram #repost #architecture #decoration 
Share your photos of the British Museum with us using #mybritishmuseum and tag @britishmuseum To celebrate #NAIDOC week, we’re sharing some of the amazing objects from #IndigenousAustralia.
Spearthrowers like these are the Swiss army knife of the desert. Created and used exclusively by men, the broad body of these spearthrowers hints at its other functions. Its firm edges were used for digging in the desert sand and scraping the ground in preparing a place to sleep. Those same hardwood edges were sawed furiously against softer wood, to create the smouldering embers by which desert people made fire. In some parts of Australia stone knives were hafted to its end with natural resins, allowing the spearthrower to also be used for butchering animals and as a chisel for engraving other objects.
#NAIDOCWeek #art It's #NAIDOC2015 – a week celebrating the history and culture of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We’ll be sharing objects each day this week from our #IndigenousAustralia exhibition.
This masterpiece of Indigenous art is called 'Yumari' and is on loan from the National Museum of Australia. It was created by the artist Uta Uta Tjangala in 1981 and is a highlight of the exhibition. Tjangala was one of the artists who initiated the translation of sand sculptures and body painting onto canvas at Papunya in 1971, making him a pioneer of contemporary Australian art. This iconic work now features on the Australian passport.
#NAIDOC #art #painting This wonderful photo by @cnorain captures the roof of the Great Court, which includes 3,312 glass panels. Each one is unique as the space is asymmetrical.
#regram #repost #architecture

Share your photos of the British Museum with us using #mybritishmuseum and tag @britishmuseum For #ThrowbackThursday this photograph from 1875 shows the Museum’s first Egyptian Room.
This is one of a collection of photographs taken by the photographer Frederick York of Notting Hill, London in 1875.
#tbt #throwback #archives #mummies We’re delighted to announce our first exhibition of the autumn ‘Drawing in silver and gold: Leonardo to Jasper Johns’, which opens 10 September.
This exhibition will feature around 100 of the best examples of #metalpoint spanning six centuries. Metalpoint is a challenging drawing technique where a metal stylus is used on a roughened preparation, ensuring that a trace of the metal is left on the surface. When mastered it can produce drawings of crystalline clarity and refinement.
This exhibition was organised by the National Gallery of Art, Washington @ngadc in association with the British Museum.
Book your tickets now to see these spectacular works! #art #drawing #Leonardo

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Bust of a warrior. Silverpoint, on prepared paper, c. 1475-1480.
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