Jennifer Wexler, Bronze Age Index Manager, MicroPasts
As part of our research into British Museum’s Bronze Age collections, the MicroPasts team is asking for the public’s help with researching the wonderful Blackmoor Hoard. Known also as the ‘Blackmoor-Wolmer Forest’ or ‘Selborne’ Hoard, the hoard was found near Blackmore, Hampshire. There are several Bronze Age barrows within the area of Woolmer Forest, and multiple hoards (Woolmer Forest, Woolmer Pond, Hogmoor, Longmoor Camp) from different periods have been found there. The connection between the ritual deposition of bronze weapons and the barrow cemeteries together constitute a particularly well-preserved ritual landscape of the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods.
Like many Bronze Age hoards recorded in the Bronze Age Index (such as the Arreton Down hoard), the Selborne Hoard has connections with several famous collectors of archaeological antiquities, including Rev. Greenwell, George Roots, General Pitt Rivers and Lord McAlpine.
Both Middle Bronze Age (MBA) and Late Bronze Age (LBA) hoards from the area are featured in the Bronze Age Index. The MBA hoard was found in 1840 and contains bronze torcs, rings and a palstave.
The LBA weapon hoard, discovered in the garden of a cottage near Blackmoor in 1870, is better known, and has a complicated history of collection. A large part of the hoard was handed over to Lord Selborne, as it was found on his land. It currently makes up part of the Selborne collection now in Gilbert White’s House and includes sword fragments, over twenty spearheads, three rings, ferrule fragments and one mysterious ‘grooved socket’.
Somehow two large groups of objects from the hoard were separated from the Selborne Collection. Part of the hoard appears to have been disposed of soon after discovery and sold to two prominent antiquarian collectors, George Roots and Rev. William Greenwell. The Greenwell collection now in the British Museum is composed largely of spearheads donated by John Pierpont Morgan in 1908. The Roots collection is more diverse, containing spearheads, sword fragments and cast rings. Evidence suggests that the Selborne, Greenwell, and Roots assemblages were all part of the same deposit, with spearhead fragments from the various collections fitting together.
The British Museum purchased the Roots collection at auction in 1891. At this sale, one extraordinary example of a lunette spearhead (now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art) was bought by General Pitt Rivers and displayed in his museum in Farnham, Dorset. The spearhead’s origins in the Roots collection and similarity to other spearheads from Selborne/Blackmoor suggests that it came from the same hoard.
This spearhead remained in the Pitt Rivers collections until the Farnham Museum closed in 1966, when much of the collection was dispersed to the Salisbury Museum and private collectors. Sometime after, the spearhead became part of Lord McAlpine’s extensive collection. After getting involved in the restoration of the Victorian town of Broome in Western Australia, Lord McAlpine sold off much of his private estate and collections, including the spearhead, to the New York art dealer Peter Sharrer. Sharrer donated the spearhead to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1998, along some other Bronze Age objects originally from the Roots Collection, where it is on display in Room 301, one of the few representations of the British Bronze Age in the Met.
While originally interpreted as representing a ‘founder’s hoard’ (i.e. containing a mix of broken metal objects for melting and re-using at a later time), recent research suggests that these objects were being purposely deposited in the ground in a particular, possibly ritualistic, manner. Also, rather than being used in everyday struggles or battles, the weapons found in such hoards may more likely be representative of social status and a ‘warrior aesthetic’ that developed later in the Bronze Age. A recent analysis of MBA-EIA (Early Iron Age) skulls found in the Thames shows that almost all exhibit blunt force injuries, at a time when the archaeological record is dominated by edged weapons, such as swords and spears. Not only does this have implications for the massive record of elaborate bronze weapons found in the Thames and other watery locations, but for all weapon hoards. Perhaps this explains why we get such elaborate and beautiful examples of weapons both from the Thames and from LBA hoards; the Metropolitan Museum of Art describes the Selborne spearhead as representing the
…highest tradition of the British Bronze Age. The piece is undeniably beautiful: its shape is elegant and spare to the point of evoking modern art. The raised rib in the middle, which also outlines the half-moon or lunette openings, may have been designed as a blood channel.
Help us find out more about the Selborne-Blackmoor hoard! If you are interested in helping us research and enrich our knowledge of the Bronze Age, please join us at MicroPasts.
The MicroPasts project team is led by Professor Andy Bevan (Institute of Archaeology (IOA), UCL) and co-investigated by Daniel Pett and Rachael Sparks (IOA, UCL). The British Museum Bronze Age Index is managed by Jennifer Wexler in collaboration with Neil Wilkin and Chiara Bonacchi (IOA, UCL) and Adi Keinan-Schoonbaert (IOA, UCL) are the principal researchers.
The Project is supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council.