British Museum blog

The doors are open but the work goes on…

St John Simpson, Exhibition Curator

Many people think that once an exhibition is open then the work of the curatorial team is finished. Far from it! The space needs regular checking as thousands of visitors flock to see the objects. There is continuing press interest and therefore interviews, special visits, public enquiries and ongoing evaluation of how the public react to the exhibition itself.

There is also the events programme to think about. This has been planned well in advance and ranges from curator introductions lectures to gallery talks and special events. Most are free and the first curator’s introduction attracted almost 400 people although sadly this meant we had to turn some away as our largest lecture theatre only seats 320.

On the weekend of 12-13 March we held a conference aimed at specialists and public alike, which focused on some of the periods represented in the exhibition and involved 18 papers by speakers from museums, universities and other organisations in Afghanistan, the UK, France, Italy, Norway and America.

Glass fish found in the Begram storerooms. Bill Gudenrath, Corning Museum of Glass, gave a presentation during which he showed a replica he'd made himself. National Museum of Afghanistan © Thierry Ollivier / Musée Guimet

Glass fish found in the Begram storerooms. Bill Gudenrath, Corning Museum of Glass, gave a presentation during which he showed a replica he'd made himself. National Museum of Afghanistan © Thierry Ollivier / Musée Guimet

However, the aim was more than simply to hold a conference on ancient Afghanistan which would be aimed at a very narrow group of specialists. The aim instead was to involve colleagues who are not only working on material from within Afghanistan itself but also directly related sites or material from neighbouring regions.

In short, in order to appreciate Afghanistan you have to look at its physical and cultural relationship with other regions, and at times this means more than just the immediate neighbours.

The order of papers was carefully choreographed so that each complemented the other and gradually rippled out geographically so that ancient Afghanistan was tied into neighbouring Parthia, the steppe connections evidenced by the Tillya Tepe finds, the Indian connections of the Kushan court and the Indian Ocean world of trade by which the Roman luxuries found at Begram were brought by sea from Egypt.

The conference ended with papers outlining recent developments and finds in Afghanistan. Two colleagues from the National Museum of Afghanistan in Kabul showed how it was being restored and some of the numismatic finds from rescue excavations of Buddhist monasteries in the copper-rich valley of Mes Aynak in Logar province.

A very distinctive type of stamp-decorated and red-slipped pottery previously known from sites such as Begram (Period III) and Tapa Sardar has also been found here. Despite these sites having been looted in the recent past, the state of preservation is striking: wall-paintings, a polychrome-painted Gandharan sculpture and a unique wooden carving of Buddha were among the latest archaeological finds to be shown in two separate papers on new excavations there and at Tapa Zargaran (Balkh) by M. Nicolas Engel, the deputy director of the French archaeological mission to Afghanistan.

Some of the Mes Aynak finds have already gone on display in Kabul, timed to coincide with the announcement that the American and Afghan governments are pledging eight million dollars to the construction of a new annexe to the museum.

The conference was a great success and proof, if proof was needed, that context is everything and that to fully appreciate the stunning objects in the exhibition one must look again at how or where they were made and brought into the country.

Roll on the next event …

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For our final #MuseumInstaSwap post we’re highlighting the 'Make Do and Mend' campaign of the Second World War, as told by our partner @ImperialWarMuseums in their #FashionontheRation exhibition.

The campaign was launched to encourage people to make their existing supplies of clothes last longer. Posters and leaflets were circulated with advice on subjects including how to prevent moth damage to woollens, how to make shoes last longer or how to care for different fabrics. As the war went on, buying new was severely restricted by coupon limits and no longer an option for many people. The ability to repair, renovate and make one's own clothes became increasingly important. Although shoppers would have to hand over coupons for dressmaking fabric as well as readymade clothes, making clothes was often cheaper and saved coupons. ‘Make Do and Mend’ classes took place around the country, teaching skills such as pattern cutting. Dress makers and home sewers often had to be experimental in their choice of fabrics. Despite disliking much of the official rhetoric to Make Do and Mend, many people demonstrated great creativity and adaptability in dealing with rationing. Individual style flourished. Shortages necessitated imaginative use of materials, recycling and renovating of old clothes and innovative use of home-made accessories, which could alter or smarten up an outfit. Many women used furnishing fabrics for dressmaking until these too were rationed. Blackout material, which did not need points, was also sometimes used. Parachute silk was highly prized for underwear, nightclothes and wedding dresses.

We've really enjoyed working with and learning from our friends at @imperialwarmuseums this week. You can catch up on all our posts and discover many more stories from London’s museums with #MuseumInstaSwap. © IWM (Art.IWM PST 4773 For #MuseumInstaSwap we’re discovering the street style of the Second World War in the #FashionontheRation exhibition at @ImperialWarMuseums. In this archive photo a female member of the Air Raid Precautions staff applies her lipstick between emergency calls.

In wartime Britain it was unfashionable to be seen wearing clothes that were obviously showy, yet women were frequently implored not to let 'standards' slip too far. There was genuine concern that a lack of interest in personal appearance could be a sign of low morale, which could have a detrimental impact on the war effort. The government's concern for the morale of women was a major factor in the decision to continue the manufacture of cosmetics, though in much reduced quantities. Make-up was never rationed, but was subject to a luxury tax and was very expensive. Many cosmetics firms switched some of their production to items needed for the war effort. Coty, for example, were known for their face powder and perfumes but also made army foot powder and anti-gas ointment. Make-up and hair styles took on an increased importance and many women went to great lengths to still feel well-dressed and stylish even if their clothes were last season's, their stockings darned and accessories home-made. As with clothing, women found creative ways around shortages, with beetroot juice used for a splash of lip colour and boot polish passing for mascara.

Discover more stories from London’s museums with #MuseumInstaSwap © IWM (D 176) In the @ImperialWarMuseums exhibition ‘Fashion on the Ration: 1940s street style’ we can see how men and women found new ways to dress while clothing was rationed. Displays of original clothes from the era, from military uniforms to utility underwear, reveal what life was really like on the home front in wartime Britain.

Despite the limitations imposed by rationing, clothing retailers sought to retain and even expand their customer base during the Second World War. Britain's high street adapted in response to wartime conditions, and this was reflected in their retail ranges. The government intervened in the mass manufacture of high street fashions with the arrival of the Utility clothing scheme in 1942. Shoppers carefully spent their precious clothing coupons and money on new clothes to make sure their purchases would be suitable across spring, summer and autumn and winter. Despite the restrictions, the war and civilian austerity did not put an end to creative design, commercial opportunism or fashionable trends on the British home front.

#FashionontheRation exhibition runs @imperialwarmuseums until 31 August.

Discover more stories from London’s museums with #MuseumInstaSwap. For our final day of #MuseumInstaSwap we’re learning about the Second World War @ImperialWarMuseums, and discovering the impact of the war on ordinary people. 
Clothes were rationed in Britain from 1 June 1941. This limited the amount of new garments people could buy until 1949, four years after the war's end. The British government needed to reduce production and consumption of civilian clothes to safeguard raw materials and release workers and factory space for war production. As with food rationing, which had been in place since 1940, one of the reasons for introducing civilian clothes rationing was to ensure fairness. Rationing sought to ensure a more equal distribution of clothing and improve the availability of garments in the shops.

As this poster shows, the rationing scheme worked by allocating each type of clothing item a 'points' value which varied according to how much material and labour went into its manufacture. Eleven coupons were needed for a dress, two needed for a pair of stockings, and eight coupons required for a man's shirt or a pair of trousers. Women's shoes meant relinquishing five coupons, and men's footwear cost seven coupons. When buying new clothes, the shopper had to hand over coupons with a 'points' value as well as money. Every adult was initially given an allocation of 66 points to last one year, but this allocation shrank as the war progressed. © IWM (Art.IWM PST 8293) This week on @instagram we’ve joined up with other London museums to highlight our shared stories. Our partner is @imperialwarmuseums, whose incredible collection brings people’s experiences of modern war and conflict to life. Follow #MuseumInstaSwap to discover some of the intriguing historical connections we have found, as well as insights into everyday life during wartime. As part of our #MuseumInstaSwap with @ImperialWarMuseums, we’ve been given special access to the Churchill War Rooms – located deep below the streets of Westminster.
This is Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s bedroom, which includes his private desk, briefcase and papers, his bed and chamber pot and even an original cigar! The bedroom is located close to the Map Room, keeping Churchill as close as possible to the epicentre of Cabinet War Rooms.
Following the surrender of the Japanese Forces the doors to the War Rooms were locked on 16 August 1945 and the complex was left undisturbed until Parliament ensured its preservation as a historic site in 1948. Knowledge of the site and access to it remained highly restricted until the late 1970s when @ImperialWarMuseums began the task of preserving the site and its contents, making them accessible to as wide an audience as possible and opening them to the public in 1984.
Discover more stories from London’s museums with #MuseumInstaSwap
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