British Museum blog

London, a world city in 20 objects: the Crucifixion of Christ

The Crucifixion of ChristChristopher Spring, British Museum

The modern state of Ethiopia was created from an ancient kingdom founded over two millennia ago. Originally extending across the Red Sea into what is now Yemen, the Aksumite Empire of Ethiopia became Christian in the fourth century. It is associated with the biblical mythologies of Solomon and of Sheba, and in the medieval west with the Christian Patriarch Prester John. Ethiopia is mentioned several times in the Bible, and its church is one of the oldest in the world. Although Ethiopia, then as now, is a country of many faiths and cultures, including Christians, Muslims and Jews.

Ethiopian Christian churches thrive among diaspora communities, with many congregations based in London. This remarkable painting tells multiple stories, with layered meanings, about Christianity and empire.

The Crucifixion of Christ

The Crucifixion of Christ

It was created in the mid-nineteenth century for the Church of the Saviour of the World at Adwa in northern Ethiopia. Its central image of the Crucifixion of Christ was painted to inspire devotion among Ethiopian Christians. There is a convention in Ethiopian religious painting for the unbelievers or evil-doers to be painted in profile and for the righteous to be painted full face – therefore the two thieves with whom Christ was crucified are depicted only in profile. At the foot of the cross Christ’s blood flows into the mouth of the skull of Adam signifying humanity’s redemption through the blood of the redeemer.

The smaller scenes around the edge of the painting celebrate Bishop Selama, the Abune (Patriarch) of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church from 1841-1867. One scene shows the arrival of the Abune in Gandabta in 1841; Bishop Selama is shown riding on a donkey being greeted by jubilant crowds.

Church paintings at this time were an important means of communication and observers would have been able to identify the recent events depicted. For example, the third scene to the left shows Bishop Selama, wearing a red, hooded cape, anointing Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia at his coronation in 1855. Tewodros had an ambitious plan to unite and modernise the country, and is still regarded as a hero by many Ethiopians.

These illustrations of Bishop Selama’s life provide an insight into the complex relationship between Church and state in Ethiopia at the time, depicting a struggle for power. The coronation of Emperor Tewodros by Abune Selama reflects on their initial alliance and the Emperor’s need for the church’s support in unifying Ethiopia politically. However, it was an alliance which eventually collapsed largely because of Emperor Tewodros’ almost unstoppable desire for modernisation and the control of ecclesiastical power.

This was first published in the London Evening Standard in January 2013.

The Crucifixion of Christ is on display in Room 25: Africa

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Collection, London: a world city in 20 objects, , , ,

Receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 11,515 other followers

Categories

Follow @britishmuseum on Twitter

British Museum on Instagram

English artist Samuel Palmer was born #onthisday in 1805. He made this painting late in his career, when his critical reputation was higher than it had ever been. It is a representation of late evening: quiet and meditative, even idyllic. The sun has already set, leaving a purplish glow in the sky; the moon and the evening star can be seen in the clear sky above. There is a sense of the chill of early autumn in the colours. Dark-coloured birds, probably rooks, are circling in the sky above the castle on the river, while a single white bird flies across the river.
London, about 1878.
#history #art #watercolour #painting Born #onthisday in 1832: Lewis Carroll, author of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. This illustration from the final chapter shows Alice upsetting the twelve creatures of the jury 
#history #illustration #AliceinWonderland #books Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born #onthisday in 1756. Here he is, aged 8, not long before the Mozart family arrived in London in 1764
#mozart #music #history Inscriptions on this mummy’s case tell us that Padiamenet worked as the Chief Doorkeeper of the temple of Ra (or Egyptian ‘bouncer’!) and also as the Chief Barber of the temple of Ra and Amun #MummyMonday 
Using the latest technology, our #8mummies exhibition unlocks hidden secrets to build up a picture of the lives of eight people in the Nile Valley over a remarkable 4,000 years – from prehistoric Egypt to Christian Sudan.
#mummy #mummies #history Robert Burns was born #onthisday in 1759. Will you be addressing a haggis this #BurnsNight? Born #onthisday in AD 76: Roman emperor Hadrian. This marble bust was found near Tivoli, outside Rome
#history #sculpture
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 11,515 other followers

%d bloggers like this: