10 things you need to live in the Arctic
Boots are vital in the Arctic for keeping feet warm in cold temperatures and for allowing you to traverse ice and snow.
These beautiful boots are from the Gwich’in People of northern Canada and Alaska. They are made from beaver fur and caribou hide and decorated with beading. The boot soles are made from moose hide that has been smoked over a fire to create a soft velvety leather, smelling of wood smoke.
2. Snow goggles
The intense sunlight reflecting off snow and ice, particularly in spring, can be very harmful and even cause blindness. To protect their eyes, Arctic Peoples have long fashioned their own snow spectacles. This Dolgan example from north-central Russia is made of reindeer skin. Decorated with beads, they were worn when riding reindeer across the taiga, the forests of the Arctic.
3. A winter parka
Warm clothing is essential to cope with the blistering cold during Arctic winters. This Inupiat coat, for a small child, was made by Nancy Myers of Kivalina, Alaska. She chose a number of different materials to make it both beautiful and cosy, showing her skill and knowledge of animal fur and materials. The hood, for example, is trimmed with wolverine fur, which doesn’t freeze against the face as it doesn’t absorb moisture.
4. A sled
Sleds enable people to travel easily and for long distances. These hard-working vehicles need to be flexible enough to withstand the constant jostling of travelling across rough terrain.
This sled was made in the early 1800s by the Inughuit people of northern Greenland. The sled is made of narwhal and caribou bone, willow and spruce driftwood, and sealskin. It is an excellent example of the technological innovation of Arctic Peoples, despite limited materials, as they scavenge wood and waste nothing from the animals they hunt.
5. Needles and a needle case
In the Arctic, warm tailored clothing is essential for survival. The earliest Arctic innovations came with the needle 30,000 years ago. This enabled people to sew and mend well-fitted clothing that allowed the wearer to stay warm and to move around easily.
This needle case from the mid-19th century secured a woman’s precious needles so they would not get lost or broken. Such cases were attached to a belt along with other sewing tools.
6. An ulu
Ulus are multipurpose tools, used for slicing meat, skinning animals and even cutting fabrics. While regional styles and materials vary, all ulus share the elegant crescent shape designed to reduce wrist fatigue during long hours of processing food and hides. This ulu has a copper blade and musk ox horn handle.
Waterproofs, like this parka made from seal gut, help the wearer stay dry. They serve various functional, decorative and ceremonial purposes. In the past, gut parkas were used for kayaking, so that even in bad weather or in the event of capsizing, the wearer would stay dry.
This parka from western Alaska, was made and used by its owner, Flora Nanuk, for berry picking, keeping her dry when it rained and protecting her from being bitten by the mosquitos of the summer tundra.
8. Knife and pouch
Knives are one of the most important tools for reindeer herders. Men use them to castrate and slaughter reindeer and, in the past, to score their unique ownership marks onto their reindeer’s ears. This knife from Russia hangs from a belt, which also held bags containing personal amulets, fire starters and tobacco.
9. Cooking equipment
Animals continue to be the main source of food and materials for many Arctic Peoples. Fish and meat are prepared in a variety of ways in the Arctic. Before propane stoves were used, Inuit boiled food in soapstone kettles, like this one, over a flame. But kettles and other vessels were also essential for melting ice into drinking water.
10. Guardian spirit figure
Along with practical items, spiritual help has also been called on by Arctic Peoples to help survive in the Arctic. This wooden figure embellished with beaded eyes and mouth and ermine or sable hide clothing was a personal guardian spirit that protected households. It was made and used by Evenki People of north-central Siberia.
Discover more about life in the Arctic in the Citi exhibition Arctic: culture and climate.
Lead supporter Citi
Julie and Stephen Fitzgerald
Buy the beautifully illustrated book accompanying the exhibition here.
Included in The Times’ Best Art Books of the Year 2020.