British Museum blog

Getting prepared

Neal Spencer, British Museum

Amara West, Sudan

Far from the British Museum, preparations are underway for the next phase of excavations in the Amara West research project.

Amara West is an ancient town in northern Sudan, which was occupied by pharaonic Egypt between 1500 and 1070 BC. We’ve been studying it since 2008, carrying out archaeological digs every year. Our next season starts in January when we’ll be writing regular updates on our progress.

For now, I’m here with Claire Messenger, who co-ordinates the British Museum international training programme, for a two-week visit to meet with colleagues from the National Corporation of Antiquities and Museums (Sudan) and to prepare the project house for the busy season ahead.

During excavations, a team of 10-15 specialists lives in a converted mudbrick house, on the nearby island of Ernetta, a short boat-trip from the ancient site. This picturesque island features clusters of traditional Nubian houses set among date-palm groves and small plots for growing fava beans and other vegetables. Three mosques, three small shops and a cemetery are also found on the island – but no vehicles.

The island seen from the river Nile

The house, owned by local primary school teacher Kawsar Mohamed Ali, is arranged around large courtyards, and is designed for the local climate, particularly the cool verandahs to encourage airflow during the summer heat. However, aspects of the house need to be changed to fit with our requirements: installation of showers, creation of object and equipment stores, and of course more bedrooms than the typical family needs. Throughout, we are trying to retain the original appearance and ambience of the house.

Mud-bricks laid out to dry next to the expedition house

Skills not taught in Egyptology or archaeology courses are needed here! Local builders are employed to convert the house, using a mixture of traditional materials (mud, sand, mudbricks) and more modern products (cement, electrical wiring). There is no mains electricity here on the island, or in the nearby area, so we only have power in the evenings, run from the neighbour’s water-pump (it doubles as a generator). Loading up the water tank

All our water comes from the Nile, for washing, cooking and drinking – we use ceramic filters to make sure it’s pure.

Many key pieces of equipment are not available locally, so earlier this week we bought a 500-litre fibreglass water tank in the capital city, Khartoum, strapped it to the roof of a Landcruiser and drove the 700 km north to site. We hope the water-tank will ensure we have a more reliable supply of water in the coming seasons. Throughout it all we’ve had the tremendous assistance of our Sudanese inspector, Shadia Abdu Rabo.

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Our #AfricanRockArt project team is cataloguing and uploading around 25,000 digital images of rock art from throughout the continent. Working with digital photographs has allowed the Museum to use new technologies to study, preserve, and enhance the rock art, while leaving it in situ.

As part of the cataloguing process, the project team document each photograph, identifying what is depicted. Sometimes images are faded or unclear. Using photo manipulation software, images can be run through a process that enhances the pigments. By focusing on different sets of colours, we can now see the layers that were previously hidden to the naked eye.

This painted panel, from Kondoa District in #Tanzania, shows the white outline of an elephant’s head at the right, along with some figures in red that it is possible to highlight with digital enhancement.

Tanzania contains some of the densest concentrations of rock art in East Africa, mainly paintings found in the Kondoa area and adjoining Lake Eyasi basin. The oldest of these paintings are attributed to hunter-gatherers and may be 10,000 years old.

Follow the link in our bio to learn more about the project and see stunning #rockart from Africa. This week we’re highlighting the work of our #AfricanRockArt image project. The project team are now in the third year of cataloguing, and have uploaded around 19,000 digital photographs of rock art from all over #Africa to the Museum’s collection online database.

This photograph shows an engraving of a large, almost life-sized elephant, found on the Messak Plateau in #Libya. This region is home to tens of thousands of depictions, and is best known for larger-than-life-size engravings of animals such as elephants, rhino and a now extinct species of buffalo. This work of rock art most likely comes from the Early Hunter Period and could be up to 12,000 years old.

Follow the link in our bio and explore 30,000 years of stunning rock art from Africa. © TARA/David Coulson. Watch the incredible discovery of this colossal statue, submerged under the sea of thousands of years. This colossal 5.4-metre statue of Hapy was discovered underwater in what was the thriving and cosmopolitan seaport of Thonis-Heracleion. It once stood in front of a temple and would have been an impressive sight for traders and visitors arriving from the Mediterranean.

Come face to face with the ancient Egyptian god Hapy for yourself in our‪ #SunkenCities exhibition, until 27 November 2016.

Colossal statue of Hapy. Thonis-Heracleion, Egypt. About 380-250 BC. Maritime Museum, Alexandria. © Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation. The discovery of this stela, which once stood at the entrance of the main entry port into ancient Egypt, was an extraordinary moment. Its inscription detailing taxes helped solve a 2,000-year-old mystery!

This magnificent monument was crucial to revealing that Thonis (in Egyptian) and Heracleion (in Greek) were in fact the same city. The decree was issued by the pharaoh Nectanebo I, regarding the taxation of goods passing through the cities of Thonis and Naukratis, and it originally stood in the Temple of Amun-Gereb. The inscription states that this slab stood at the mouth of the ‘Sea of the Greeks’ (the Mediterranean) in Thonis.

A bilingual decree found in 1881 refers in its Greek inscription to ‘the Temple of Heracleion’ and in hieroglyphs to ‘the Temple of Amun-Gereb’. Together these objects revealed that Thonis and Heracleion were the same place.

Learn more about the deep connections between the great ancient civilisations of Egypt and Greece in our #SunkenCities exhibition.
Stela commissioned by Nectanebo I (r. 380–362 BC), Thonis-Heracleion, Egypt, 380 BC. © Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation. For centuries nobody suspected that the #SunkenCities of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus lay beneath the sea. Recorded in ancient writings and Greek mythology, the ancient Egyptian cities were believed to be lost.

Over the last 20 years, world-renowned archaeologist Franck Goddio and his team have excavated spectacular underwater discoveries using the latest technologies. The amazing rediscovery of these lost cities is transforming our understanding of the deep connections between the great ancient civilisations of Egypt and Greece.

See more magical moments of discovery in our #SunkenCities exhibition, until 27 November 2016. © Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation.

#archaeology #diving #ancientEgypt This week we’re highlighting some of the incredible clocks and watches on display in the Museum. Mechanical clocks first appeared in Europe at some time between 1200 and 1300. Their introduction coincided with a growing need to regulate the times of Christian prayer in the monasteries. Telling the time with a sundial was especially difficult in western Europe with its unreliable weather. From the end of the 13th century, clocks were being installed in cathedrals, abbeys and churches all around Europe.

The design of turret clocks (public clocks) changed little over the following three centuries and this particular example, made around 1600, has similar characteristics to clocks made for churches in the medieval period. The maker of this clock was Leonard Tenant, one of the most prolific makers of church clocks in the first half of the 17th century. The clock was installed in Cassiobury Park, a country house near Watford.

See this incredible clock in Rooms 38-39 
#clocks #watches #horology
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