British Museum blog

Making magic

Shakespeare’s Restless World is currently being broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Today’s episode New Science, Old Magic takes us closer to Dr John Dee and his magical world.


Greg Doran, Artistic Director Designate, Royal Shakespeare Company

I have always been intrigued by theatre magic. Dr Dee is famous for having created an amazing illusion when he was a student at Cambridge in the 1540s, and even now I can’t work out how he did it. He put on a play, Aristophanes’ Peace, in which an Athenian mortal flies to heaven on the back of a dung beetle basically to ask the Gods to stop the Peloponnesian war. How did Dee manage to convince the audience that he was flying around Trinity Hall on the back of a giant dung beetle? I would have real problems doing that in the Swan Theatre in Stratford.

Unless you have the mechanics that are available to productions like Chitty Chitty Bang Bang or Mary Poppins, that kind of illusion is really hard to pull off, so I am rather fascinated by Dee. On open stages like the Swan or the Globe, with no lighting effects to speak of and the audience wrapped all the way around the stage, it’s very difficult to hide the strings.

It is intriguing to wonder how Shakespeare and his company at the Globe created magic. We know they did have effects; they could create thunder, for example. But in the controlled environment of the indoor theatres like the later Blackfriars Theatre, where there was more theatre machinery around, they had a far greater control of light – and if you can control the light, you can control the effect.

When you go to a Shakespeare play you are wondering how they are going to do Banquo’s ghost in Macbeth or how Hamlet’s father is going to appear. On an open stage this kind of illusion is harder to do. Patrick Stewart played Hamlet’s ghost in the 2008 production of Hamlet with David Tennant and we created an illusion that wherever he went on the stage, smoke surrounded him. It was actually a little machine tucked up under his great coat, but it made him look as though he was floating on a cloud of smoke wherever he went.

We did a production of Macbeth with Tony Sher and Harriet Walter in 1999, and we decided at the end of the banquet scene we needed to spook the audience. As Lady Macbeth left the banquet, she picked up one of the candles from the table and as she left, suddenly all the candles on the table extinguished by themselves. In fact the witches were sitting under the table and pulled the wicks through the candles, which is why they went out. The witches then suddenly pushed all the chairs over from underneath the table and threw the table in the air and the audience were pretty shocked; I have to say that was fun.

We spend a lot of time trying to work out the very simple magic that, of course, Shakespeare’s theatre was investigating all the time.

Shakespeare’s Restless World is on BBC Radio 4
from 16 April to 11 May, at 13.45 and 19.45 weekdays.

Listen to today’s programme New Science, Old Magic

Find out more:
Royal Shakespeare Company
Behind the scenes at the RSC

Filed under: Shakespeare's Restless World, What's on

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Our #AfricanRockArt project team is cataloguing and uploading around 25,000 digital images of rock art from throughout the continent. Working with digital photographs has allowed the Museum to use new technologies to study, preserve, and enhance the rock art, while leaving it in situ.

As part of the cataloguing process, the project team document each photograph, identifying what is depicted. Sometimes images are faded or unclear. Using photo manipulation software, images can be run through a process that enhances the pigments. By focusing on different sets of colours, we can now see the layers that were previously hidden to the naked eye.

This painted panel, from Kondoa District in #Tanzania, shows the white outline of an elephant’s head at the right, along with some figures in red that it is possible to highlight with digital enhancement.

Tanzania contains some of the densest concentrations of rock art in East Africa, mainly paintings found in the Kondoa area and adjoining Lake Eyasi basin. The oldest of these paintings are attributed to hunter-gatherers and may be 10,000 years old.

Follow the link in our bio to learn more about the project and see stunning #rockart from Africa. This week we’re highlighting the work of our #AfricanRockArt image project. The project team are now in the third year of cataloguing, and have uploaded around 19,000 digital photographs of rock art from all over #Africa to the Museum’s collection online database.

This photograph shows an engraving of a large, almost life-sized elephant, found on the Messak Plateau in #Libya. This region is home to tens of thousands of depictions, and is best known for larger-than-life-size engravings of animals such as elephants, rhino and a now extinct species of buffalo. This work of rock art most likely comes from the Early Hunter Period and could be up to 12,000 years old.

Follow the link in our bio and explore 30,000 years of stunning rock art from Africa. © TARA/David Coulson. Watch the incredible discovery of this colossal statue, submerged under the sea of thousands of years. This colossal 5.4-metre statue of Hapy was discovered underwater in what was the thriving and cosmopolitan seaport of Thonis-Heracleion. It once stood in front of a temple and would have been an impressive sight for traders and visitors arriving from the Mediterranean.

Come face to face with the ancient Egyptian god Hapy for yourself in our‪ #SunkenCities exhibition, until 27 November 2016.

Colossal statue of Hapy. Thonis-Heracleion, Egypt. About 380-250 BC. Maritime Museum, Alexandria. © Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation. The discovery of this stela, which once stood at the entrance of the main entry port into ancient Egypt, was an extraordinary moment. Its inscription detailing taxes helped solve a 2,000-year-old mystery!

This magnificent monument was crucial to revealing that Thonis (in Egyptian) and Heracleion (in Greek) were in fact the same city. The decree was issued by the pharaoh Nectanebo I, regarding the taxation of goods passing through the cities of Thonis and Naukratis, and it originally stood in the Temple of Amun-Gereb. The inscription states that this slab stood at the mouth of the ‘Sea of the Greeks’ (the Mediterranean) in Thonis.

A bilingual decree found in 1881 refers in its Greek inscription to ‘the Temple of Heracleion’ and in hieroglyphs to ‘the Temple of Amun-Gereb’. Together these objects revealed that Thonis and Heracleion were the same place.

Learn more about the deep connections between the great ancient civilisations of Egypt and Greece in our #SunkenCities exhibition.
Stela commissioned by Nectanebo I (r. 380–362 BC), Thonis-Heracleion, Egypt, 380 BC. © Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation. For centuries nobody suspected that the #SunkenCities of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus lay beneath the sea. Recorded in ancient writings and Greek mythology, the ancient Egyptian cities were believed to be lost.

Over the last 20 years, world-renowned archaeologist Franck Goddio and his team have excavated spectacular underwater discoveries using the latest technologies. The amazing rediscovery of these lost cities is transforming our understanding of the deep connections between the great ancient civilisations of Egypt and Greece.

See more magical moments of discovery in our #SunkenCities exhibition, until 27 November 2016. © Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation.

#archaeology #diving #ancientEgypt This week we’re highlighting some of the incredible clocks and watches on display in the Museum. Mechanical clocks first appeared in Europe at some time between 1200 and 1300. Their introduction coincided with a growing need to regulate the times of Christian prayer in the monasteries. Telling the time with a sundial was especially difficult in western Europe with its unreliable weather. From the end of the 13th century, clocks were being installed in cathedrals, abbeys and churches all around Europe.

The design of turret clocks (public clocks) changed little over the following three centuries and this particular example, made around 1600, has similar characteristics to clocks made for churches in the medieval period. The maker of this clock was Leonard Tenant, one of the most prolific makers of church clocks in the first half of the 17th century. The clock was installed in Cassiobury Park, a country house near Watford.

See this incredible clock in Rooms 38-39 
#clocks #watches #horology
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