Stephen Clews, Manager, Roman Baths and Pump Room
The Beau Street hoard was found in the old spa quarter of Bath, where a nineteenth century hospital building is being converted into a five star hotel next to the city’s modern spa and close to the heart of the old Roman town of Aquae Sulis.
The site is very close to two of the city’s three hot springs. Excavations in the nineteenth century in advance of the hospital revealed evidence of a Roman bath house adjacent to one of these springs, so it was expected that some interesting Roman archaeology might be revealed by excavations here. But a large hoard of coins was completely unexpected.
There are no other large hoards of Roman coins known from Bath. Nor is there anything about the known archaeology of the site or indeed any other evidence from Bath that would lead us to expect the discovery of what is now the largest hoard of Roman coins yet discovered from an urban context in Britain.
The Roman Baths intends to acquire this hoard through the Treasure process and put it on prominent display in a gallery devoted to the story of Aquae Sulis. Here it will be seen by the around a million visitors who come to see what is already one of Britain’s principal Roman sites every year.
At the moment, we’re working to raise money for the acquisition and would like it to be a process in which we can celebrate the discovery of the hoard and use it as a spring board for a wide range of learning and cultural activities inspired by it. Together with the British Museum and several other organisations we are working up ideas for a programme that will run alongside the conservation, acquisition and display of the hoard.
Although there will be opportunities to take part in these events and see many of the coins in advance our target is to put the hoard on permanent display towards the end of 2014.
But, for now, with each coin that emerges, we’re trying to work out why the hoard was buried in the first place. So far the latest coin discovered dates to 274 AD, and although this was a time of great unrest in the Roman Empire there has been no indication of this in the archaeological record from Bath. Troubled times are not always the reason for the deposition of hoards, but they are an obvious reason to consider.
Burial of the coins as an offering to the gods seems unlikely in this case – as just a few yards away more than 12,000 coins have been recovered from excavations of a Sacred Spring where they were thrown in as offerings directly to the Goddess Sulis Minerva. In Bath that was the obvious way to make an offering.
The hoard was buried in a stone-lined box set into the floor of a Roman building. It was presumably covered over, perhaps by wooden boards or a piece of furniture to hide its presence. Whatever the means, it certainly seems to have achieved its object. A personal loss of a family fortune? Perhaps an elderly batchelor living alone with his inheritance hidden safely away? In which case the hoard may have been buried some years later than its youngest coin suggests.
We could imagine many other scenarios to account for the hoard. Whatever the reason, the hoard that now survives has brought a new dimension and a new story to our thinking about the development of Roman Bath that ranks with many of the other great discoveries made here.
The 300-year-dig at Bath that began with the discovery of the gilt bronze cult statue of the goddess Sulis Minerva in 1727 is still giving up secrets!