British Museum blog

The Beau Street Hoard: the view from Bath

A gallery display at the Roman Baths Museum, Bath


Stephen Clews, Manager, Roman Baths and Pump Room

The Beau Street hoard was found in the old spa quarter of Bath, where a nineteenth century hospital building is being converted into a five star hotel next to the city’s modern spa and close to the heart of the old Roman town of Aquae Sulis.

The site is very close to two of the city’s three hot springs. Excavations in the nineteenth century in advance of the hospital revealed evidence of a Roman bath house adjacent to one of these springs, so it was expected that some interesting Roman archaeology might be revealed by excavations here. But a large hoard of coins was completely unexpected.

The excavation of the Beau Street Hoard. © Cotswold Archaeology

The excavation of the Beau Street Hoard. © Cotswold Archaeology

There are no other large hoards of Roman coins known from Bath. Nor is there anything about the known archaeology of the site or indeed any other evidence from Bath that would lead us to expect the discovery of what is now the largest hoard of Roman coins yet discovered from an urban context in Britain.

The Roman Baths intends to acquire this hoard through the Treasure process and put it on prominent display in a gallery devoted to the story of Aquae Sulis. Here it will be seen by the around a million visitors who come to see what is already one of Britain’s principal Roman sites every year.

At the moment, we’re working to raise money for the acquisition and would like it to be a process in which we can celebrate the discovery of the hoard and use it as a spring board for a wide range of learning and cultural activities inspired by it. Together with the British Museum and several other organisations we are working up ideas for a programme that will run alongside the conservation, acquisition and display of the hoard.

The Roman Baths Museum. © Bath & North East Somerset Council

The Roman Baths Museum. © Bath & North East Somerset Council

Although there will be opportunities to take part in these events and see many of the coins in advance our target is to put the hoard on permanent display towards the end of 2014.

But, for now, with each coin that emerges, we’re trying to work out why the hoard was buried in the first place. So far the latest coin discovered dates to 274 AD, and although this was a time of great unrest in the Roman Empire there has been no indication of this in the archaeological record from Bath. Troubled times are not always the reason for the deposition of hoards, but they are an obvious reason to consider.

Burial of the coins as an offering to the gods seems unlikely in this case – as just a few yards away more than 12,000 coins have been recovered from excavations of a Sacred Spring where they were thrown in as offerings directly to the Goddess Sulis Minerva. In Bath that was the obvious way to make an offering.

Objects found at a sacred spring in Bath. © Bath & North East Somerset Council

Objects found at a sacred spring in Bath. © Bath & North East Somerset Council

The hoard was buried in a stone-lined box set into the floor of a Roman building. It was presumably covered over, perhaps by wooden boards or a piece of furniture to hide its presence. Whatever the means, it certainly seems to have achieved its object. A personal loss of a family fortune? Perhaps an elderly batchelor living alone with his inheritance hidden safely away? In which case the hoard may have been buried some years later than its youngest coin suggests.

We could imagine many other scenarios to account for the hoard. Whatever the reason, the hoard that now survives has brought a new dimension and a new story to our thinking about the development of Roman Bath that ranks with many of the other great discoveries made here.

The 300-year-dig at Bath that began with the discovery of the gilt bronze cult statue of the goddess Sulis Minerva in 1727 is still giving up secrets!

Find out more about the Beau Street hoard and the Roman Baths Museum fund-raising campaign.

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Filed under: Beau Street Hoard, Conservation

2 Responses - Comments are closed.

  1. ritaroberts says:

    This tremendous discovery is awe inspiring to say the least.Im sure there must be more to discover.The conservation of the hoard is a long task indeed and one where I would love to be present while this is taking place. Bath is one of my favourite archaeological sites that I must visit again when in England. Thanks to the British Museum for sharing your work.

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Here’s a #regram from @mrapachekat. Doesn’t this lion look majestic? The Museum’s Montague Place entrance is just as grand as the more-visited Main entrance on Great Russell Street. This part of the Museum contains the King Edward VII galleries, and the foundation stone was laid by the King in 1907. This side of the building was designed in the Roman style rather than the Greek Revival of Great Russell Street. It features numerous imperial references, including the coat of arms above the door, and sculptures of lions’ heads and crowns. The architect Sir John James Burnet was knighted for his work designing these galleries, and the building was opened by King George V and Queen Mary in 1914 (Edward VII had died in 1910). #regram #repost #architecture #BritishMuseum #lion Another brilliant photo of the Museum’s Main entrance on Great Russell Street – this time by @violenceor. The perspective gives a good sense of the huge scale of the columns. The Museum has two rows of columns at the main entrance, with each being around 14 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide. Designer Sir Robert Smirke used 44 columns along the front elevation. This design of putting columns in front of an entrance is called a ‘portico’, and was used extensively in ancient Greek and Roman buildings. #regram #repost #architecture #neoclassical #BritishMuseum The Museum looks spectacular with a blue sky overhead – especially in this great shot by @whatrajwants. You can see the beautiful gold flashes shining in the sun. This triangular area above the columns is called a ‘pediment’, and was a common feature in ancient Greek architecture. The copying of classical designs was fashionable during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and was known as the Greek Revival. The sculptures in the pediment were designed in 1847 by Sir Richard Westmacott and installed in 1851. The pediment originally had a bright blue background, with the statues painted white. #regram #repost #architecture #neoclassical #sculpture #gold #BritishMuseum Concluding our short series of gold objects from the Museum’s collection is this group of items found in the Fishpool hoard. The hoard was buried in Nottinghamshire sometime during the War of the Roses (1455–1485), and contains some outstanding pieces of jewellery. 1,237 objects were found in this hoard in total. At the time it was deposited, its value would have been around £400, which is around £300,000 in today’s money! The variety of this collection of objects includes brilliant examples of fine craftsmanship. The turquoise ring in the centre was highly valued as it was believed that turquoise would protect the wearer from poisoning, drowning or falling off a horse.
#hoard #gold #jewellery #turquoise #treasure Continuing our exploration of the golden objects in the Museum, this amazing inlaid plaque is from 15th-century China. Lined with semi-precious stones, this piece would have formed part of a pair sewn into a robe. We can tell this belonged to an emperor of the Ming dynasty because only he would have been allowed to use items decorated with five-clawed dragons.
#Ming #gold #jewellery #China #BritishMuseum Our next trio of objects shows off some of the shimmering gold in the Museum’s collection. This stunning piece of jewellery comes from Egypt and was made around 600 BC. It was worn across the chest – this type of accessory is known as a ‘pectoral’. Popular throughout ancient Egypt, pectorals have been found from as early as 2600 BC. This example is made from gold and is inlaid with glass, showcasing the incredible level of craftsmanship in Egypt at the time, and asserting the status of the wearer. Falcons were important symbols in ancient Egypt – the god Horus took the form of a falcon.
#AncientEgypt #gold #jewellery #BritishMuseum
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