British Museum blog

London, a world city in 20 objects: inscription from the Firuz Minar at Gaur

Inscription from the Firuz Minar at GaurMichael Willis, British Museum

Inscription from the Firuz Minar at Gaur

Inscription from the Firuz Minar at Gaur

From the 1300s, when London was still a small town on the River Thames, the city of Gaur in Bengal was a vibrant metropolis. It enjoyed trade links with Thailand, Ceylon, Africa and the Middle East and on several occasions served as the capital of Bengal. By the late 1500s, however, Gaur began to lose its population due to changes in the course of the River Ganga – the main commercial artery of the day. The mosques and tombs in Gaur fell slowly into ruins and the open land between the monuments was given over to rice cultivation, palm groves and mango trees. So it is today.

This inscription is from one of Gaur’s most famous monuments, the Firuz Minar. This high tower has drawn the attention of many travellers. It was illustrated first in watercolours and prints in the 1700s and photographed from the 1860s.

The inscription is fragmentary, with only the right-hand portion preserved. The other parts disappeared more than two centuries ago and have never been found. The inscription is written in Arabic, beautifully carved in a style of calligraphy unique to Bengal. It gives the titles of an important Bengal Sultan: Sayf al-Din Firuz Shah. He was of Ethiopian descent and ruled as king from 1486 to 1490.

Gaur is located in northern Bengal, straddling the border between Bangladesh and West Bengal. The old mosques and tombs are all made of brick, with many still carrying traces of coloured tiles. Doorframes and inscriptions were carved in stone. As Gaur declined, inscriptions began to fall from their original positions. This led to them being collected and stored for preservation. William Franklin, an officer in the East India Company and a prolific writer on history and archaeology, mentions that he found the Firuz Minar inscription stored in an indigo factory at Gaur. Indigo was an important cash crop in the early colonial period because it was the main source of blue dye before discoveries in the 1840s allowed the colour to be produced chemically. Following the same route as indigo, tea and cotton, the Gaur inscription was moved down river to Calcutta and carried aboard ship to London.

Franklin donated the Gaur inscription to the British Museum in 1826 shortly after his retirement from active service. The Gaur inscription is among the first antiquities from this region to enter the collection.

This was first published in the London Evening Standard on 13 December 2012.

The Inscription from the Firuz Minar at Gaur is on display in Room 34: The Islamic world

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Collection, London: a world city in 20 objects, , ,

Receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 16,408 other followers


Follow @britishmuseum on Twitter

British Museum on Instagram

‘Colour is important in South Africa – we make it important. Colour places you, colour tells where you are within the geography of South Africa. And when I thought of colour, I realised that I cannot ignore the incident that happened in 1989.’ Mary Sibande (born 1982)

This 2013 work is called ‘A Reversed Retrogress: Scene 1 (The Purple Shall Govern)’. Sibande cast these figures from her body. The one in Victorian dress, called Sophie, refers to her mother, grandmother and great-grandmother, who were maids in white South African households. The second figure, in purple, represents Sibande herself.

The Purple Shall Govern relates to the statement ‘the people shall govern’, from the 1955 Freedom Charter and post-apartheid constitution. It also refers to the Purple Rain Protests of 1989, when protesters captured the police water cannon being used to spray them with purple dye and turned it on their assailants. Over the following days the slogan ‘the purple shall govern’ was painted on walls around Cape Town. Although a tension remains, Sibande is saying goodbye to Sophie, her past, and confronting the ‘purple’ present and future.

See this incredible work in our #SouthAfricanArt exhibition, which is now open! (See the link in our bio for tickets)

Sponsored by Betsy and Jack Ryan. Logistics partner IAG Cargo.

Mary Sibande (b. 1982), A Reversed Retrogress: Scene 1 (The Purple Shall Govern). Mixed media, 2013. © Mary Sibande. Courtesy of the artist and Gallery MOMO. 
#modernart #MarySibande #purple #SouthAfrica #BritishMuseum #exhibition Here @edoardofanfani captures the youthful look and friendly expression of this statue of Amenhotep III. The colossal limestone statue originally stood with hundreds of others in the temple of Amenhotep III, which was on the west bank of the River Nile near the ancient city of Thebes. 
Statues depicting the pharaoh often show him with his eyes appearing to look down on the viewer, and a slight smile emerging from his lips. He is wearing heavy makeup, with sweeping eyeliner that nearly touches the temples, and stylised eyebrows. Share your photos with us using #myBritishMuseum 
#AncientEgypt #Sculpture #Statue #Pharaoh #Egypt #eyebrowsonfleek This great photo by @comertcomi shows one of ancient Egypt’s most highly respected animals. Cats were associated with the goddess Bastet and she is often represented as a domestic cat. This statue is a particularly fine example, with gold rings and silver decoration. The collar also contains a silver wedjat-eye and sun-disk which are protective symbols. It also has a scarab on its head – scarabs were associated with rebirth in ancient Egypt. The eyes were perhaps originally inlaid with glass or stones. 
Share your photos with us using #myBritishMuseum
#AncientEgypt #Sculpture #Statue #Cat #Egypt #🐱 #catsofinstagram #regram #repost This week we’re focusing on Egyptian statues and sculpture at the Museum. This great shot by @sisterofpopculture shows the majestic statue of Ramesses II. Made of pink and grey granite, the sculptor has skilfully used the natural colours in the stone to suggest the difference between the face and body. 
This colossal statue was originally part of a pair that stood outside the Ramesseum (the pharaoh’s huge memorial temple). He is also known as ‘Ramesses the Great’ – he ruled for 66 years and his influence reached to the furthest corners of the realm. 
Share your photos with us using #myBritishMuseum
#AncientEgypt #Sculpture #Statue #Pharaoh #Egypt #regram Opening in March 2017, our #AmericanDream exhibition presents the Museum’s outstanding collection of modern and contemporary American prints for the first time. These will be shown with important works from museums and private collections around the world.

From Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg to Ed Ruscha, Kara Walker and Julie Mehretu – all boldly experimented with printmaking.  With over 200 works by almost 70 artists, trace the creative momentum of a superpower across six decades. Click the link in our bio to book your tickets now! 
Edward Ruscha (b. 1937), Made in California. Colour lithograph, 1971. © Ed Ruscha. Reproduced by permission of the artist.
#print #printmaking #art #🇺🇸 Taking inspiration from the world around them – billboard advertising, politics, Hollywood, and household objects – American artists created highly original prints to rival their paintings and sculptures. #Printmaking brought their work to a much wider and more diverse audience.

Many of these works also address the deep divisions in society that continue to resonate with us today. This screenprint by Andy Warhol was commissioned by the Democratic Party for the 1972 presidential campaign. Instead of portraying the Democratic candidate McGovern, Warhol chose to represent his opponent Richard Nixon. He appropriated the image from the cover of Newsweek magazine, using the colours from Nixon's wife's outfit for his face, creating a demonic look.

See this new acquisition by the Museum, and many other extraordinary works in our #AmericanDream exhibition, opening March 2017. Click the link in our bio for more info.

Andy Warhol (1928-1987), Vote McGovern. Screenprint, 1972. © 2016 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York and DACS, London.
#art #Warhol #AndyWarhol #🇺🇸 #print #Democrats #politics
%d bloggers like this: