British Museum blog

Excavating a chamber tomb

Carina Summerfield-Hill, physical anthropologist

Rami Mohamed Abdu and Abou Ad Abu Taher excavating through the roof of the western chamber

I’m one of three physical anthropologists working in Cemetery C at Amara West, and in recent days I’ve been working on a chamber tomb (Grave 234) – the largest and most exciting of grave types here.
Rami Mohamed Abdu lifting the beer jar from the shaft of grave 234

The tomb consists of a central shaft with an underground eastern and western chamber. We started excavating down into the central shaft to expose the doorway to each chamber. The sand in the shaft contained a complete Egyptian-style beer jar.

Since then, we have focused on excavating the western chamber.

The safest way to excavate it was to dig down from above, through the chamber’s roof, otherwise the fragile but heavy layers of alluvium could collapse on us. Once the chamber was exposed, we removed windblown sand which had accumulated inside.

It contains three articulated burials and a concentration of disarticulated bone that included four complete skulls.

Carina Summerfield-Hill excavating the Nubian style crouched burial

So far I have excavated one of the articulated burials towards the centre of the chamber, the feet of which poked out into the shaft.

The entire burial was within the remains of a wooden casing, and was of an adult female, fully articulated in a crouch position – this was a really pleasing discovery as it is a local Nubian tradition of burial, as opposed to the Egyptian tradition of laying the body out in an extended burial position. This is the first Nubian burial type to be found in Cemetery C!

Western chamber of Grave 234 with three articulated burials and concentration of disarticulated human remains (under cover to the right)

The western chamber also contains two further articulated burials that are extended – It is fascinating to see two different traditions in the same grave.

Over the coming days I shall be excavating these two extended burials along with the concentration of disarticulated bones, so there is a lot of work still to do.

And next we have the eastern chamber, where we have just begun removing the surface to get access.

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This gold ox figurine is on loan from the University of Pretoria @upmuseums, and features in our #SouthAfricanArt exhibition, which is now open!
The ox is part of a group of gold sculptures that were found in Mapungubwe, the capital of the first kingdom in southern Africa. They were part of a royal burial dating from around 800 years ago, and are an exceptionally important archaeological find. The other gold objects are a sceptre and a bowl, as well as sculptures of animals – a rhinoceros and a wild cat. They must have been made at great expense and the ox and wild cat were reconstructed in 2009 from gold fragments.
You can book tickets to this fascinating exhibition by following the link in our bio. South Africa: the art of a nation runs until 26 February 2017. 
Gold rhinoceros. From Mapungubwe, capital of the first kingdom in southern Africa, c. AD 1220–1290. Department of UP Arts, University of Pretoria. 
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This stunning car is part of our #SouthAfricanArt exhibition which has just opened! You can book your tickets by following the link in our bio. 
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See this incredible work in our #SouthAfricanArt exhibition, which is now open! (See the link in our bio for tickets)

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