British Museum blog

Researching ‘old’ as well as ‘new’ kinds of money in West Africa

Documents from 1931-33Sophie Mew, Project Curator, Money in Africa

I’ve been working on the Money in Africa research project to understand how coin and note currencies were introduced to the coastal regions of Africa and how their usage had spread widely by the close of the nineteenth century.

With two former British West African colonies, the Gold Coast (what is now known as Ghana) and Sierra Leone (one of the earliest British settlements on the coast), most of my research so far has been carried out at the National Archives in London, in Accra (Ghana) and in Freetown (Sierra Leone). In each place, I’ve consulted documents relating to a wide range of accounts about currencies. These included, for example, colonial despatches written by the governors of Sierra Leone and the Gold Coast and sent to the Secretaries of State in London; records that were created by and filed in the Treasury department in London, as well as diaries from merchants trading to West Africa.

Documents from the 1930s

Documents from 1931-33, PRAAD records

One of my early finds was a series of detailed instructions for traders on an expedition to the west coast of Africa in 1796. The Governor of Freetown at the time requested that the traders gather as much information as possible to understand what it was that locals preferred to trade with, at each stage, and at what value. At the National Archives in Ghana in June 2012, I found a series of similar despatches that were distributed to District Officers in 1944. Questions related to coins and notes and what they were used for, as they sought to gather information on the preferences of “the man on the street”. Responses suggested, for example, that people who could read preferred notes while labourers preferred coins. The 1/10th shilling was used as a counter for gambling in Obuasi, and notes could be inconvenient: the “average cloth wearing African was used to carrying his money tied up in a corner of his cloth with the result that notes became crumpled and torn, got wet and became pulp.”

Inside the Sierra Leone National Archives at Fourah Bay College,

Inside the Sierra Leone National Archives at Fourah Bay College,

I took my first trip to Sierra Leone in January 2013 where I researched the holdings of the branch of the National Archives, located on the University Campus (Fourah Bay College, founded in 1827, is the oldest university in West Africa). At the top of a treacherously steep hill overlooking the city, I consulted lists of annual stipends that the British colonial government paid to local chiefs in exchange for leasing their land, and trawled through records of fines and fees paid to the colonial police to find out what currencies people were using and when.

In conjunction with my archival research for the Money in Africa project, I was also seeking information about the use of mobile money in Sierra Leone as part of a redisplay of an exhibition panel in the Citi Money Gallery. This display panel addresses the future of money and new technologies, and is updated every six months to showcase new studies.

As I questioned members of the public in Freetown, friends I had made, and staff members of mobile money companies, I understood the wariness that people have in trusting new kinds of money and the difficulties with trying out alternative systems. What I found fascinating here was that similar justifications for the practicality of using new coins and banknotes in the nineteenth century were being repeated to me within the contexts of mobile money in Sierra Leone today.

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Find out more about the Money in Africa project

Filed under: Money in Africa, Research, , , , , , , , ,

The spirit of Sierra Leone in London

Sowei mask naming ceremonyPaul Basu, University College London

The latest Asahi Shimbun Display Sowei mask: spirit of Sierra Leone opened to the public this week. The display is the most recent outcome of collaborations between the British Museum’s Africa Programme and various partners including the Sierra Leone National Museum, the Reanimating Cultural Heritage project based at University College London, and members of the Sierra Leone diaspora community in the UK.

Throwing cowries to determine the name of the mask

Throwing cowries to determine the name of the mask

The particular object in focus in the exhibition is a wooden helmet mask associated with the female Sande society. It was collected in the 1880s by Thomas J. Alldridge (1847-1916), whose entire career was spent in Sierra Leone, first as a trading agent and subsequently as a British colonial administrator. Alldridge, who travelled widely throughout the region, wrote two significant books about Sierra Leone, The Sherbro and its Hinterland (1901) and A Transformed Colony: Sierra Leone as it was and as it is (1910). Alldridge had a particular interest in native customs, cultural practices and masquerade traditions, and especially those associated with what were then described as ‘secret societies’ – chiefly the male Poro society, and its female counterpart, the Sande society. He wrote about these extensively in his books, assembled a large collection of local artefacts, and took some of the earliest photographs we have of traditional Sierra Leonean life. In 1886, Alldridge collected a number of objects from the Sherbro district of Sierra Leone specifically for display in the Colonial and Indian Exhibition held in London that year. The mask on display in the British Museum was one of them, and to the best of our knowledge this is the first time it has been on public display for over 120 years.

Presenting the mask to the British Museum

Presenting the mask to the British Museum

Typical of collectors of his day, Alldridge recorded very little information about the mask. It was described in the lurid language of the time as ‘one of the most prominent Fetishes worshipped in [the region]’. In fact, as visitors to the exhibition will discover, such masks were – and continue to be – regarded as manifestations of particular spirits who act as guardians and teachers of the Sande society. They are mediators between the human world and the world of the spirits. Like people, every mask/spirit has a name and an individual personality.

In preparation for this display we worked closely with members of the Sierra Leonean diaspora community in London. On 16 February 2013 visitors to the British Museum were treated to a rare opportunity to see a special performance of the ndoli jowei, the Sande masquerade, to celebrate the opening of Sowei mask: spirit of Sierra Leone.

During initial meetings with the Sierra Leonean community, the women were concerned that the mask to be displayed had lost its name. They proposed holding a special ceremony to give the mask a new name and, 127 years after originally entering the Museum’s collections, to formally present the mask to the British Museum on behalf of the Sande society.

The ceremony took place in a private room at the British Museum on 23 January 2013. The women were dressed in white and had white clay daubed on their skin as is customary in the Sande society. Accompanied by the shegbureh, a shaker made from a gourd surrounded by a network of beads, the women sang traditional Sande songs and danced around the as yet nameless mask. The participants then surrounded the mask in silence as the head woman addressed the spirit of the mask directly. After pouring a libation, the naming itself took place. Four cowrie shells were thrown to determine the name. If all four land the same way up, this is a sign that the spirit has accepted its name. After numerous attempts, the mask accepted the name Gbavo (meaning ‘to attract people’s attention’, ‘crowd-puller’ in Mende). A celebratory song was then sung in praise of the mask.

The mask is received by the British Museum

The mask is received by the British Museum

The next part of the ceremony involved the newly-named mask being presented to the British Museum. Accompanied by more singing, the mask was wrapped in white cloth, lifted onto the head of one of the participants and carried to a female representative of the Museum’s Department of Africa, Oceania and the Americas, also dressed in white. The mask is presented three times. Only on the third presentation is the mask received. Having accepted the mask, the Museum representative then stood at the centre of the women, while they danced around her, singing a farewell to the spirit: Oh Gbavo, Ggavo ma kɔlɛ ma sina fɔndei ta ngaye ta yi ma ju nga li nya ye [roughly translated as Oh Gbavo, when we separate tomorrow, tears and sweat will mingle and run down my face].

It was a privilege to be able to witness something of the spirit of Sierra Leone in the singing, dancing and traditional customs of the women gathered in this room in London. The ceremony was also an important moment in the ‘biography’ of this mask – another story to add to the others that we explore in the exhibition itself.

Sowei mask: spirit of Sierra Leone is on display at the British Museum
until 28 April 2013.

The Asahi Shimbun Displays

To find out more about Sierra Leone, please visit

If you would like to leave a comment click on the title

Filed under: Exhibitions, , ,

Receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 16,407 other followers


Follow @britishmuseum on Twitter

British Museum on Instagram

Here @edoardofanfani captures the youthful look and friendly expression of this statue of Amenhotep III. The colossal limestone statue originally stood with hundreds of others in the temple of Amenhotep III, which was on the west bank of the River Nile near the ancient city of Thebes. 
Statues depicting the pharaoh often show him with his eyes appearing to look down on the viewer, and a slight smile emerging from his lips. He is wearing heavy makeup, with sweeping eyeliner that nearly touches the temples, and stylised eyebrows. Share your photos with us using #myBritishMuseum 
#AncientEgypt #Sculpture #Statue #Pharaoh #Egypt #eyebrowsonfleek This great photo by @comertcomi shows one of ancient Egypt’s most highly respected animals. Cats were associated with the goddess Bastet and she is often represented as a domestic cat. This statue is a particularly fine example, with gold rings and silver decoration. The collar also contains a silver wedjat-eye and sun-disk which are protective symbols. It also has a scarab on its head – scarabs were associated with rebirth in ancient Egypt. The eyes were perhaps originally inlaid with glass or stones. 
Share your photos with us using #myBritishMuseum
#AncientEgypt #Sculpture #Statue #Cat #Egypt #🐱 #catsofinstagram #regram #repost This week we’re focusing on Egyptian statues and sculpture at the Museum. This great shot by @sisterofpopculture shows the majestic statue of Ramesses II. Made of pink and grey granite, the sculptor has skilfully used the natural colours in the stone to suggest the difference between the face and body. 
This colossal statue was originally part of a pair that stood outside the Ramesseum (the pharaoh’s huge memorial temple). He is also known as ‘Ramesses the Great’ – he ruled for 66 years and his influence reached to the furthest corners of the realm. 
Share your photos with us using #myBritishMuseum
#AncientEgypt #Sculpture #Statue #Pharaoh #Egypt #regram Opening in March 2017, our #AmericanDream exhibition presents the Museum’s outstanding collection of modern and contemporary American prints for the first time. These will be shown with important works from museums and private collections around the world.

From Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg to Ed Ruscha, Kara Walker and Julie Mehretu – all boldly experimented with printmaking.  With over 200 works by almost 70 artists, trace the creative momentum of a superpower across six decades. Click the link in our bio to book your tickets now! 
Edward Ruscha (b. 1937), Made in California. Colour lithograph, 1971. © Ed Ruscha. Reproduced by permission of the artist.
#print #printmaking #art #🇺🇸 Taking inspiration from the world around them – billboard advertising, politics, Hollywood, and household objects – American artists created highly original prints to rival their paintings and sculptures. #Printmaking brought their work to a much wider and more diverse audience.

Many of these works also address the deep divisions in society that continue to resonate with us today. This screenprint by Andy Warhol was commissioned by the Democratic Party for the 1972 presidential campaign. Instead of portraying the Democratic candidate McGovern, Warhol chose to represent his opponent Richard Nixon. He appropriated the image from the cover of Newsweek magazine, using the colours from Nixon's wife's outfit for his face, creating a demonic look.

See this new acquisition by the Museum, and many other extraordinary works in our #AmericanDream exhibition, opening March 2017. Click the link in our bio for more info.

Andy Warhol (1928-1987), Vote McGovern. Screenprint, 1972. © 2016 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York and DACS, London.
#art #Warhol #AndyWarhol #🇺🇸 #print #Democrats #politics America. Land of the free. Home of the brave...
We are delighted to announce our #AmericanDream exhibition – opening in March 2017!

The past six decades have been among the most dynamic and turbulent in US history, from JFK’s assassination, Apollo 11 and Vietnam to the AIDS crisis, racism and gender politics. Responding to the changing times, American artists produced prints unprecedented in their scale and ambition. 
Experience this extraordinary history in ‘The American Dream: pop to the present’. This major new exhibition is sponsored by Morgan Stanley and supported by the Terra Foundation for American art. Click the link in our bio to book your tickets now.

Jasper Johns (b. 1930), Flags I. Screenprint, 1973. Collection of Johanna and Leslie Garfield. © Jasper Johns/VAGA, New York/DACS, London 2016. © Tom Powel Imaging.
#🇺🇸 #art #JasperJohns #printmaking
%d bloggers like this: