British Museum blog

Back in the lab: analysing skeletal remains from Amara West


Michaela Binder, Durham University

Since early July, I’ve been in London, finally getting to analyse the human remains we excavated last season at Amara West. The human skeleton acts as a unique database about a number of different aspects of past human life. It can reveal information about a person’s life such as sex, age at death, diet or health – even a few thousand years after the person died.

Tracing this information is part of my job as a physical anthropologist.

Working in the bioarchaeology laboratory in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum

Working in the bioarchaeology laboratory in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum

This does not necessarily require special technical equipment or analysis but can usually be deduced from visible inspection of the bones alone. For example, while certain shape traits in the skull and pelvis give information about whether the individual was male or female, attrition of the teeth and degenerative changes in specific parts of the hip bone can tell us how old a person was when he or she died.

Currently, I’m working on the human remains from the chamber of Grave 234. One of the more challenging tasks working on the burials from this grave is to find out how many people were actually buried there. Since the grave was re-used so many times, many of the burials had become jumbled together. Attributing all elements to an individual is unfortunately not always possible. Nevertheless, I can identify two more adult men and a juvenile, in addition to the four intact burials in the centre of the chamber.

Commingled burials in Grave 234 at Amara West

Commingled burials in Grave 234 at Amara West

One of the most interesting aspects of my work is when we find evidence of injuries or diseases. Even though we usually don’t find out how a person died, some injuries and diseases that occur during lifetime leave a well visible imprint on the bones. One particularly striking example from Grave 234 is a hip bone which was fractured in three different places.

The right pelvis of an adult male with fractures in three locations. Note the tiny holes – these were caused by termites.

The right pelvis of an adult male with fractures in three locations. Note the tiny holes – these were caused by termites.

Injuries of this type require high energy and are nowadays mainly associated with motor vehicle accidents or falls from great heights. Moreover they often lead to serious complications and death if the internal organs are affected as well. Although we will never know the causes of this individual’s injuries, we can speculate that it may have been a fall that occurred during building work or agricultural labour.

Such injuries are very painful but nevertheless, with two-three months rest and stabilisation, they usually heal well and do not lead to any significant walking problems. The same apparently happened in this person as the injuries are well healed, indicating that he lived on for at least several months – if not for years.

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Going underground – unearthing more burials at Amara West

Dyan Semple, physical anthropologist, University of Alberta

Gone underground: the shaft of grave 234, with tarpaulin covering the eastern chamber

Along with Michaela and Carina, I’m working in cemetery C at Amara West, currently in the western chamber of Grave 201.

This tomb has a central shaft and two chambers to the east and the west. It had already been partially excavated in 2009, but this year we removed the alluvium from above the western chamber, to avoid the possibility of it falling in while we were excavating.

A lot of the bones had been crushed by earlier collapse, but five articulated burials were found at the rear of the space. As they lay one on top of the other, I had to be very careful to separate them – finding a place to stand was the first issue, and then I could remove the more recent burials at the front, after recording them.

Dyan cleaning skeletons in Grave 201

From the way the skeletons are arranged, it is possible to tell that some of the individuals had been tightly bound for burial. They were buried in an extended position, laid out with their hands beneath them and their feet crossed. In some cases, however, the binding was tight and thick, leading to bodies being placed face down, perhaps accidentally.

I didn’t find any traces of cloth, although some of the individuals had wood pieces associated with their remains, which may once have been a coffin or funerary bed.

In addition to wood fragments, three scarabs have been found in the grave – one individual had two faience scarabs associated with them, clutched in the left hand, and lying under the crushed skull.

One scarab bore the prenomen cartouche of Thutmosis III, a pharaoh of the mid-18th Dynasty, which is much earlier than the use of this cemetery for burials. However, objects like these were kept for long periods of time, and scarabs with this royal name were still being made centuries later.

Scarab (F9490) of glazed steatite, found in Grave 201

The final task in this grave is drawing a cross-section of the chambers and shafts, and I have already started work in the eastern chamber of Grave 234, which is a similarly constructed chamber tomb.

Though the bones are again crushed, there is a large amount of relatively intact wood along the back of the chamber, and ceramic jars and bowls are visible at the sides and centre. One burial seems to have been placed in the chamber after it had already partially collapsed. It appears that there are at least 10 individuals in the chamber, so the excavation of Grave 234 will likely occupy the remainder of the season for Carina and I.

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In 1966 the Beatles were number one with Paperback Writer, Lyndon Johnson was asked to ‘get out’ of Vietnam, and a gallon of gas cost $0.32. American artist Ed Ruscha travelled 1,400 miles on Route 66 from LA to his hometown of Oklahoma, recording the gas stations dotted along the road. Influenced by graphic design and advertising, he transformed everyday images like this into dramatic works of art.

See this work on loan from @themuseumofmodernart in our #AmericanDream exhibition – follow the link in our bio to book tickets.

Edward Ruscha (b. 1937), Standard Station. Screenprint, 1966. @themuseumofmodernart New York/Scala, Florence. © Ed Ruscha. Reproduced by permission of the artist.

#EdRuscha #Route66 #USA #graphicdesign #advertising #print #art #LA #1960s #westcoast #printmaking Today marks 30 years since the death of Andy Warhol, hailed as the ‘Pope of pop art’. One of the most recognisable images in the world, Warhol’s Marilyn series remains sensational after five decades. This series of 10 individual screenprints, made in 1967, is on loan from @tate for our #AmericanDream exhibition – opening 9 March. Warhol used a cropped and enlarged publicity still as the source image for this work, taken by photographer Gene Kornman for Monroe’s 1953 film ‘Niagara’. Behind the glamour and fame of the Marilyn series lay tragedy. Recently divorced from playwright Arthur Miller, Marilyn had taken her own life with a drug overdose in August 1962. Warhol’s depiction of the alluring screen goddess became a memorial to a fallen idol.

See some of Warhol’s most iconic works in our major exhibition. Follow the link in our bio to find out more.

#Warhol #AndyWarhol #PopArt #1960s #USA #art #MarilynMonroe Sweets, ice creams and cakes feature heavily in the sugary, colourful work of American artist Wayne Thiebaud. This piece is called ‘Gumball Machine’ and was made in 1970. His works are characterised by his focus on mass-produced objects.

You can see some of his prints in our upcoming #AmericanDream exhibition – book your tickets by following the link in our bio.

Wayne Thiebaud (b. 1920), Gumball Machine. Colour linocut, 1970. © Wayne Thiebaud/DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2016.
#WayneThiebaud #popart #art #Americanart #🍭 #🍬 This beaded #wedding blanket was made around the 1950s in South Africa by a Ndebele artist. Under apartheid the Ndebele were forced to live in ethnically defined rural reserves. In response to losing their ancestral lands, Ndebele women began to make distinctive beadwork for significant events.

They also adapted these designs and painted them on their homesteads, to include ever more intricate and colourful patterns. As a form of protest, these artworks had the effect of making Ndebele identity highly visible at a time when the government was attempting to make them effectively invisible through rural segregation.

See this beautiful beaded blanket in our special exhibition #SouthAfricanArt, which traces the history of this nation over 100,000 years. Follow the link in our bio to book your tickets before the exhibition closes on 26 Feb.
#SouthAfrica #history #design #beads #Ndebele #blanket In 19th-century southern Africa, people wore different designs, colours and materials to communicate their power, wealth, religious beliefs and cultural community.

This beautiful beaded necklace is made of brass, glass and fibre, and is known as an ingqosha, a traditional necklace worn by the Xhosa people. Young Xhosa women and men traditionally wear the ingqosha at weddings and ceremonial dances.

During apartheid, necklace designs from the 1800s were used as a form of political and cultural protest. While on the run in 1961, Nelson Mandela was photographed wearing a beaded collar, and after his capture his then wife Winnie reportedly chose one for him to wear during sentencing. By wearing this necklace Mandela made a powerful cultural and political statement about his Xhosa ancestry.

Learn more about the fascinating history of this nation in our #SouthAfricanArt exhibition, closing 26 Feb 2017. Follow the link in our bio to find out more.
#SouthAfrica #necklace #jewellery #beads #history #art #xhosa We love this great shot of Esther Mahlangu’s stunning BMW Art Car taken by @bitemespice. It’s currently in the Great Court as part of our #SouthAfricanArt exhibition, charting the fascinating history of a nation through its art. The car was painted in 1991 to mark the end of apartheid in South Africa, and the brightly coloured geometric shapes are inspired by the traditional house-painting designs of the Ndebele people.

Mahlangu’s Art Car combines tradition and history with contemporary art and politics; themes  that are explored in our #SouthAfricanArt exhibition. Catch it before it ends on 26 February 2017 – you can book tickets by following the link in our bio.
#SouthAfrica #mybritishmuseum #britishmuseum #regram #repost
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